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Chapter11Transparencies - CHAPTER 11 – INTELLIGENCE I –...

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CHAPTER 11 – INTELLIGENCE I – THE ORIGINS OF INTELLIGENCE TESTING Binet/Simon: Predicting School Achievement : Goal was to develop an objective test to identify children who would have difficulties in school. Assumed that all children follow the same course of intellectual development but differ in terms of rate of development. Mental age : A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8. Terman : Stanford-Binet : The widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet’s original intelligence test. Intelligence quotient (IQ) : Ratio of mental age ( ma ) to chronological age ( ca ) multiplied by 100 (thus, IQ = ma / ca × 100). On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100. IQ score is not computed for today’s tests. Instead, compute a mental ability score based on same-age references group. Defined so that 100 is average, with about two-thirds of all people scoring between 85 and 115. Terman was a proponent of the “innate” view of intelligence, as measured by these tests. II- WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE? Reification : Viewing an abstract, immaterial concept as if it were a concrete thing. To reify is to invent a concept, give it a name, and behave as if such a thing objectively exists in the world. Intelligence : A mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. One General Ability or Many ? Factor analysis : A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors ) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total score.
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