Chapter12Transparencies - CHAPTER 12 MOTIVATION AND WORK...

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CHAPTER 12 - MOTIVATION AND WORK Motivation : A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior. I – MOTIVATIONAL CONCEPTS Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology : Instinct : A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned. Instinct theories of motivation are not well-suited for understanding human behavior – learned motives are important Drive-reduction theory : The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need (behave). Homeostasis : A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level. Ultimate goal of drive- reduction. Incentive : A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior. Pushed by need to reduce drives and pulled by incentives. Optimal arousal : preferred state of arousal that motivates behavior to achieve it. Needs Hierarchy : Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active (belonging, self-esteem, self- actualization). Imprecise and untested model. II – HUNGER Stomach contractions : Associated with hunger but feel hungry and eat w/o them. Blood chemistry : Glucose : The form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues; low levels signal hypothalamus - hunger. Hypothalamus: Lateral – hunger; Ventro-medial – satiety; monitors 1
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Leptin – (fat cells) - stop eating. PYY (digestive tract): fullness hormone Ghrelin (stomach) and Orexin (hypothalamus) : hunger hormones Set point : The point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set; below set point – hunger, lowered metabolic rate, eating; above set point - stop eating, increase energy expenditure. Basal metabolic rate : The body’s resting rate of energy expenditure; adjusted (along with appetite) to maintain or return to set point. The Psychology of Hunger Taste preferences : Sweet and salty – genetic and universal; adaptive (spices in hot climates and for meat dishes; neophobia (aversion for novel foods)). Carbohydrates increase serotonin levels – calming effect. Eating disorders : Biological, social, psychological, cultural explanation. Anorexia nervosa
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Chapter12Transparencies - CHAPTER 12 MOTIVATION AND WORK...

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