Chapter15Transparencies - CHAPTER 15 PERSONALITY...

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CHAPTER 15 – PERSONALITY PERSONALITY : An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. I – HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE ON PERSONALITY Freud : Personality (including emotions and motivations) arises from a conflict between aggressive, pleasure-seeking biological impulses and internalized social restraints against them; personality is the result of efforts to resolve this basic conflict—to express basic impulses in ways that bring satisfaction without also bringing guilt or punishment. Psychoanalysis : Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; also, the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions. Unconscious : A reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories (contemporary psychologists - information processing of which we are unaware). Free association : A method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing. Deterministic perspective: Nothing is accidental; everything has a cause. Personality structure : Id : The reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives; operates on the pleasure principle seeks immediate gratification. Ego : The largely conscious, “executive” part of personality that mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality; operates on the reality principle - satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain. Superego : The part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience ) and future aspirations. Personality development: Psychosexual stages : The childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones (pleasure-centered areas of the body). 1
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Stage: Pleasure zone Oral (0–18 months): Mouth—sucking, biting, chewing Anal (18–36 months): Anus; bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control Phallic (3–6 years): Genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings Latency (6 to puberty)Dormant sexual feelings Genital (puberty on): Maturation of sexual interests Oedipus complex : A boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father. Electra complex : A girl’s sexual desires toward her father and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival mother. Identification : The process by which children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos. Fixation
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2008 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Jackson during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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Chapter15Transparencies - CHAPTER 15 PERSONALITY...

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