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- Chapter 16 PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS 450 million people world wide Depression and Schizophrenia found in all cultures I PERSPECTIVES ON

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Chapter 16: PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS 450 million people world wide: Depression and Schizophrenia found in all cultures I – PERSPECTIVES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Psychological disorder : A “harmful dysfunction” in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive, and unjustifiable. Medical model : “mental” illnesses can be diagnosed based on symptoms and cured through therapys. Bio-psycho-social perspective : Biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders. II – CLASSIFYING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS DSM-IV : American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition), classifies psychological disorders; 17 major categories; does not address causes; reliable diagnosis using it. Critics: Too broad (too many disorders); arbitrary and value-laden labels. Neurotic disorder : Distressing but can still think rationally and function socially. Psychotic disorder : Loss of contact with reality, irrational ideas, distorted perceptions. Dangers of Labeling : Self-fulfilling; may lead to ignoring symptoms not encompassed by label; biases behavior toward the labeled, stigmatizes though stigma is decreasing. At least 9 out of 10 people with disorders are not dangerous; rather they are anxious, depressed, or withdrawn III – ANXIETY DISORDERS Anxiety disorders : Characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety. Generalized anxiety disorder : Continually tense, apprehensive, and autonomic nervous system arousal; 2/3 are women; no identifiable source of anxiety. Panic disorder : Minutes-long episodes of intense dread, terror, chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations. Agoraphobia: Fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult or help unavailable when panic strikes; may avoid being outside the home, in a crowd, on a bus or elevator. 1
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Phobia : Persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation. Social phobia : Fear of being scrutinized by others; may avoid all social situations. Obsessive-compulsive disorder : Unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions); interferes with life and cause distress; less frequent among older people than teens and young adults. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder : Haunting memories and nightmares, a numbed social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and insomnia after experiencing or witnessing severely threatening, uncontrollable events with fear, helplessness, or horror. Explaining Anxiety Disorders Learning Perspective Fear conditioning (Classical) : General anxiety develops from exposure to uncontrollable, unpredictable aversive stimuli. Stimulus generalization
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2008 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Jackson during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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- Chapter 16 PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS 450 million people world wide Depression and Schizophrenia found in all cultures I PERSPECTIVES ON

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