Chapter18Transparencies

Chapter18Transparencies - CHAPTER 18 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY...

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CHAPTER 18 – SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Social psychology : The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another. I – Social Thinking Attributing Behavior: Persons and Situations Attribution theory : A theory about how we make causal explanations for someone’s behavior, either to the situation or the person’s disposition. Fundamental attribution error : The tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition. Influences how we react to that person; influences attitudes. Attitudes and Actions Attitude : A belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events. Attitudes influence behavior when external influences are minimal and we are aware of the attitude and its relevance to our behavior. Behavior influences attitudes Foot-in-the-door phenomenon : The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. Role-playing : affects attitudes about self (Zimbardo Prison Study). Why behavior influences attitudes Cognitive Dissonance Theory : The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two (or more) of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. II – SOCIAL INFLUENCE Conformity and Obedience Conformity : Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard. 1
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Ash’s experiments: Conformity increases when: 1) one feels incompetent or insecure. 2) the group has at least three people. 3) the group is unanimous. 4) one admires the group’s status and attractiveness. 5) one has made no prior commitment to any response. 6) others in the group observe one’s behavior. 7) one’s culture strongly encourages respect for social standards. Why people conform: Normative social influence : Influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval. Informational social influence : Influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality. Obedience : Milgram’s experiments (2/3 obeyed). Obedience highest when: 1) authority was close and legitimate. 2) authority supported by a prestigious institution. 3) victim is depersonalized or distance, even in another room. 4) no role models for defiance. Group Influence Social Facilitation : Improved task performance in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with difficult, not mastered tasks. Attributed to increased arousal which increases likelihood of dominant response.
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Chapter18Transparencies - CHAPTER 18 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY...

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