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Chapter17Transparencies - CHAPTER 17 THERAPY Psychological...

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CHAPTER 17 – THERAPY Psychological therapies : Use structured interactions (usually verbal) between a trained professional and a client with a problem. Psychotherapy : An emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties. Eclectic approach : Therapists who view disorders as an interplay of bio-psycho-social influences may welcome a combination of treatments (50%). I – PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPIES Psychoanalysis : Sigmund Freud’s therapeutic technique; patient’s free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences—and the therapist’s interpretations of them— released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight. Aims : Bring repressed feelings to conscious awareness and work through them to gain insights; healthier, less anxious living when patient releases energy previously devoted to id-ego-superego conflicts. Methods : Free associations - must overcome resistance - blocking anxiety-laden material from consciousness. Therapist’s interpretations —suggestions of underlying wishes, feelings, and conflicts—aim to provide insight . Identify latent content – underlying meaning of a dream, the surface of which is manifest content . Transference : The patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent). Issues : Assumes the existence of repressed memories (which have been refuted by recent research). Difficult to refute therapist’s interpretations (seen as resistance if you do). Takes time, is expensive and few therapists strictly psychoanalytic. Psychodynamic Therapies Like Freud: Understand current symptoms by probing supposed repressed, emotion-laden information; gain insight into the unconscious roots of problems and work through newly resurrected feelings. Unlike Freud : Face to face (rather than out of the line of vision), once a week (rather than several times weekly), and for only a few weeks or months (rather than several years). Interpersonal psychotherapy : A brief (12- to 16-session) alternative to psychodynamic therapy has been found effective with depressed patients. Like psychodynamic therapies, interpersonal psychotherapy aims to help people gain insight into the roots of their difficulties, but focuses on current 1
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relationships and assists people in improving their relationship skills. Its goal is not personality change but symptom relief in the here and now. II – HUMANISTIC THERAPIES Self-fulfillment, self-awareness, self-acceptance Present and future more important than past; feelings now rather than childhood. Conscious rather than unconscious thoughts. Assume responsibility for feelings and actions, rather than searching for hidden determinants.
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