Exam 2 Study Guide - Exam 2 Study Guide I. CHAPTER 7...

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Exam 2 Study Guide I. CHAPTER 7 – CONSCIOUSNESS A. What is consciousness? 1. Definition: Our awareness of ourselves and our environment; enables voluntary control and communication of mental states to others. 2. Levels of Information Processing Serial a. processing of consciously attended to information (executive function) while parallel processing of subconscious information (e.g., routine tasks). 3. Daydreams and Fantasies a. gender differences b. purposes (e.g. relieve boredom, increase creativity, etc.) B. Sleep and dreams 1. Biological rhythms a. Periodic physiological fluctuations i. know annual cycles, 28-day cycles (menstrual), 24-hour (alertness, body temperature, and growth hormone secretion), 90-minute cycles (sleep stages). 2. The Rhythm of Sleep a. Circadian rhythms i. Know how light affects circadian rhythms 3. Sleep Stages a. Know the five distinct sleep stages and the brain-wave activity, eye movements, timing, and muscle tension associated with each i. Stage 1: Waves become more irregular, slower; lasts up to 5 minutes; hallucinations - sensory experiences without sensory stimuli; sense of falling (body jerks) or floating (“ hypnologic sensations). ii. Stage 2: Periodic appearance of sleep spindles (bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity); lasts about 20 minutes; sleep talking here or during any other stage of sleep. iii. Stage 3 : Transitional stage; beginning of large, slow Delta waves ( slow-wave sleep ); lasts a few minutes iv. Stage 4 : Deep sleep; last about 30 minutes: bed-wetting, sleep- walking; difficult to awaken, but still processing (hear name, baby cry). v. Then, in about 1 hour, return through stages 3 and 2 to REM sleep : characterized by rapid eye movement (thus the name REM), vivid dreaming occurs; paradoxical sleep
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C. Importance of sleep 1. Know the effects of sleep deprivation a. biological b. cognitive c. behavioral 2. Trends in sleep (Americans are sleeping less with time, age trends, etc.) 3. Functions a. Protection: In early human evolution sleep put us out of harm’s way. b. Restoration: Body tissues, especially those of the brain (decreased adenosine production during sleep; pruning and consolidation). c. Growth : Pituitary releases growth hormone. 4. Know what each sleep disorder entails a. Insomnia b. Narcolepsy c. Sleep apnea d. Night terrors 5. Dreams a. A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind; know the properties i. Lucid Dream: Vivid and aware that we are dreaming ii. 8 in 10 dreams are marked by negative emotions, mostly we dream of events in our daily lives iii. Manifest content b. Know why we dream i. Wish fulfillment/Inner conflict (Freud) ii. Information Processing iii. Physiological function iv. Activation-synthesis v. REM rebound D. Hypnosis 1. A social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur (mesmerism)
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2008 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Jackson during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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Exam 2 Study Guide - Exam 2 Study Guide I. CHAPTER 7...

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