Influence of home environment on personality traits od adolescents.pdf - INFLUENCE OF HOME ENVIRONMENT ON PERSONALITY TRAITS OF ADOLESCENTS Thesis

Influence of home environment on personality traits od adolescents.pdf

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Unformatted text preview: INFLUENCE OF HOME ENVIRONMENT ON PERSONALITY TRAITS OF ADOLESCENTS Thesis submitted to the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF HOME SCIENCE IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND FAMILY STUDIES By LEEMA RAJKUMARI DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND FAMILY STUDIES COLLEGE OF RURAL HOME SCIENCE, DHARWAD UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, DHARWAD-580 005 JUNE, 2013 ADVISORY COMMITTEE DHARWAD JUNE, 2013 (S ARASWAT I C. HUNSHAL) MAJOR ADVISOR Approved by : Chairman : ____________________________ (SARASWATI C. HUNSH AL) Members : 1. __________________________ (PUSHPA B. KHADI) 2. __________________________ (MANJULA PATIL) 3. __________________________ (JYOTI VASTRAD) 4. __________________________ (VEENA JADHAV) CONTENTS Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 6. Chapter Particulars CERTIFICATE LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF APPENDICES INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Concept and Definitions 2.2 Personality theories 2.3 Personality traits 2.4 Factors influencing personality traits MATERIAL AND METHODS 3.1 Research design 3.2 Population of the study 3.3 Sample for the study 3.4 Tools used for the study 3.5 Classification of variables 3.6 Data collection 3.7 Statistical analysis 3.8 Operational definition 3.9 Hypothesis set for the study RESULTS 4.1 Background characteristics of the adolescents 4.2 Personality traits of urban and rural adolescents 4.3 Home environment dimensions of urban and rural adolescents 4.4 Factors influencing personality traits of adolescents 4.5 Influence of home environment on personality traits of adolescents DISCUSSION 5.1 Personality traits of urban and rural adolescents 5.2 Home environment of urban and rural adolescents 5.3 Factors influencing personality traits of adolescents SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION REFERENCES APPENDICES LIST OF TABLES Table No. Title 1 Background characteristics of adolescents 2 Personality traits of urban and rural adolescents 3 Home environment dimensions of urban and rural adolescents 4 Influence of age on personality traits of adolescents 5 Influence of gender on personality traits of adolescents 6 Influence of ordinal position on personality traits of adolescents 7 Association of fathers’ education and personality traits of adolescents 8 Association of mothers’ education and personality traits of adolescents 9 Association of fathers’ occupation and personality traits of adolescents 10 Association of mothers’ occupation and personality traits of adolescents 11 Association between caste and personality traits of adolescents 12 Association between family type and personality traits of adolescents 13 Association between family size and personality traits of adolescents 14 Association between income and personality traits of adolescents 15 Association between socioeconomic status and personality traits of adolescents 16 Association between control dimension of home environment and personality traits 17 Association between protectiveness dimension of home environment and personality traits 18 Association between punishment dimension of home environment and personality traits 19 Association between conformity dimension of home environment and personality traits 20 Association between social isolation dimension of home environment and personality traits 21 Association between reward dimension of home environment and personality traits 22 Association between deprivation of privileges dimension of home environment and personality traits 23 Association between nurturance dimension of home environment and personality traits 24 Association between rejection dimension of home environment and personality traits 25 Association between permissiveness dimension of home environment and personality traits LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Title 1 Flowchart depicting sample selection for the study 2 Personality traits of urban and rural adolescents 3 Home environment dimensions of urban and rural adolescents LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix No. Title I General information schedule II Big Five Inventory III Home environment Inventory IV Socioeconomic status scale INTRODUCTION In modern industrial societies, the passage from childhood to adulthood is marked by a long transitional period known as adolescence. Adolescence has been defined in a number of ways, from different points of view, as a period of physical development, a chronological age-span or a sociological phenomenon. Hurlock designates the years from 10-12 as pre-adolescence, 13-16 as early adolescence and 17-21 as late adolescence. Whatever may be the definition, the psychology of the adolescent, who is no longer a child, but not yet an adult, is important in the study of human behaviour. The term adolescence comes from the Latin word ‘adolescere’ meaning ‘to grow into maturity’. The chief task of adolescence is to resolve the “crises” of identity versus identity confusion or identity versus role confusion (Erickson, 1968), so as to become a unique adult with a coherent sense of self and a valued role in society. Over the years adolescence has been portrayed as a period of storm and stress, inner turmoil, transition and a way-station in development. Just as every other stage of life, adolescence has special problems which must be understood and solved by appropriate technique based on a sound knowledge of the psychology of the adolescents and so also many developmental changes takes place during this period, including personality development. Thus there is an urgent need for parents and society to understand the psychology of adolescence in the light of these considerations and facilitate the adolescent’s achievement of total development. Personality is the special group of traits that makes one unique. Looks, actions, and interests all contribute to one’s personality. It also includes skills, achievements, feelings, thoughts, and habits. It even includes how one gets along with others and what others think of the person. In fact, personality is a product of physical, social, emotional, and intellectual growth. As one grows and changes in each of these ways, personality grows and changes, too. This will continue throughout the lifetime. In case of the personality pattern, the different psychophysical systems that make up the individual’s personality are interrelated, with one influencing the others. The two major components of the personality pattern are the core- the ‘concept of self’- and the spokes of the wheel- the ‘traits’ which are held together and influenced by the core. The real self concept is the concept that people have of who and what they are. It is a mirror image determined by their roles, their relationships with others and what they believe the reactions of others to them are. Each kind of self concept has a physical and a psychological aspect. The physical aspect is composed of concepts individual have on their appearance, their sex appropriateness, the importance of their bodies in relation to their behaviour, and the prestige their bodies give them in the eyes of others. The psychological aspect is composed of concepts individual have on their abilities and disabilities, their worth and their relationships with others. At first these two aspects were separate but they gradually fuse as childhood progresses. And traits are specific qualities of behaviour or adjustive patterns, such as reactions to frustrations, ways of meeting problems, aggressive and defensive behaviour, and outgoing or withdrawing behaviour in the presence of others. Traits have two outstanding characteristics, individuality which is shown in variations in the quantity of a particular trait rather than in a trait peculiar to that person, and consistency, which means that the person behaves in approximately the same way in similar situations or under similar conditions. Everyone’s personality is a mixture of traits. People who have a pleasant mixture of personality traits are easy to like. They are not always silly or serious, not always forceful or weak, not always outgoing or quiet. People with healthy, well-balanced personalities may show a little of each trait at different times. Studies of the development of the personality pattern have revealed that three factors are responsible for its development; hereditary endowment, early experiences within the family, and events in later life. The pattern is closely associated with maturation of the physical and mental characteristics which constitutes the individual’s hereditary endowment. Heredity refers to all the traits that are passed from ancestors to the person. It is the environment that may help in bringing out certain traits more than others. Heredity forms the basic personality and then, the effects of the environment add to the personality development. Environment is made up of everything and everyone around. It includes home, school, neighbourhood, family, friends, teachers, etc. All parts of the environment, particularly home environment has the greatest effect on personality. The way a person relates to his family affects his personality development. It has been rightly said that home life is the highest and finest product of civilization. Home, being the first and the major agency of socialization, it has great influence on the development of the child, particularly in shaping his attitudes and behavioural patterns. The early life experiences of the child in the family lay the groundwork for the type of future behaviour and the development of attitudes, values and a lifestyle. It is here that the child learns his first lesson in citizenship and true moral discipline through face-to-face contacts. Family members, particularly parents, are considered to be the architects in shaping the personality of a child during the first few years of life. Parental behaviour perceived by children plays an important role in their personality development. Further, their relationships with family members are greatly influenced by the home setting- the pattern of life in the home, the kind of people who make up the group living in the home, the economic and social status of the family in the community and other conditions that give the home a distinctive character. It is a well known fact that most of those who become successful in life have come from homes where parental attitude towards them is favourable and where a wholesome relationship exists between parents and children. If parents want their children to achieve better, they should provide and maintain in the family highly congenial atmosphere. Some of the other important personality determinants are cultural influences, physique, physical condition, attractiveness, intelligence, emotions, names, success and failures, social acceptance, status symbols, school influence, etc. Analytically, personality of a child is the consequences of acquisition, assimilation and adaptation of cultural norms and values of one’s own groups, through social interaction, social learning and socialization process. The nature of personal experiences which may be emotional, social and intellectual are unique to each individual child and that is one of the factors of personality differences among children. Nevertheless, each child is born with potentialities for his own individual responses and for resistance to environmental influences. However, home/ family sets the pattern for a child’s understanding towards life in general. Moreover, as the child lives in the close contacts with the family members, he/she initiates behaviour patterns and learns to adjust to life as they do. Basically there are two major effects that home puts on the life of a child. First, it provides the condition that facilitates acceptance or rejection of behaviour. The second, the individual expression in the ways in which the child’s personality is shaped. So, in order to understand the various personality traits of urban and rural adolescents and the influence of their home environment and other factors on personality traits of them, the present study is undertaken with the following objectives: 1. To understand the personality traits of adolescents. 2. To compare the personality traits of urban and rural adolescents. 3. To study the influence of child, parental and familial factors on personality development of adolescents. REVIEW OF LITERATURE A comprehensive review of studies is an essential step in any research endeavour to provide base for developing a framework, insight into the methodology and working out a basis for interpretation of findings. Keeping in view the objectives of the study, the literature pertaining to personality traits are reviewed and presented under the following headings: 2.1 Concepts and definitions. 2.2 Personality theories 2.3 Personality traits 2.4 Factors influencing personality traits. 2.1 CONCEPT AND DEFINITIONS 2.1.1 Concept of personality and personality development The term personality comes from the latin word persona, meaning ‘mask’. To the Romans, persona meant ‘as one appears to others’, not as one actually is. From this connotation of the word persona, our popular idea of personality as the effect one has on others has been derived. What a person feels, thinks and is are included in that person’s whole psychological make-up and are, to a great extent, revealed through behaviour. Personality, then, is not one definite, specific attribute; rather, it is the quality of the person’s total behaviour. Personality is also used colloquially to imply personal attractiveness, the ability to withstand hardships and other specific qualities. Kempf (1919) has defined personality as”the habitual mode of adjustment which the organism effect between its own egocentric drives and the exigencies of the environment”. According to Prince (1924), “Personality is the sum total of all the biological inmate dispositions, impulses, tendencies, appetites and instincts of the individual, and the acquired dispositions and tendencies”. This definition places a potentially useful emphasis on the inner aspect of personality. Watson has called attention to the fact that character is part of personality. He says, “Personality includes not only these (character-conventional) reactions but also the more individual personal adjustments and capacities as well as their life history. Popularly speaking we would say that a liar and a profligate had no characters, but he may have an exceedingly interesting personality”. Symonds (1928) has defined personality as “the portrait or landscape of the organism working together in all its phases”, and May (1929) speaks of “the social stimulus value of the individual”. Allport (1937) has defined personality as a dynamic organization within an individual of those psycho-physical systems that determine his unique adjustment to the environment. He also defined personality traits as “modi vivendi”, they have significant role in advancing, adaptation within, and mastery of personal environment. McCrae and Costa (1996) based on the five-factor model organized the personality traits under five broad dimensions: emotional stability, extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness. Personality traits are defined as developmental constructs that change across the life course (Roberts and Caspi, 2006) in response to the environments being mastered. 2.1.2 Concept of home environment Human beings are always immersed in a social environment which not only changes the very structure of the individual or just compels him to recognise facts but also provides him with a readymade system of signs. It imposes on him a series of obligations. Two environments namely, home and school environments share an influential space in child’s life. Various researchers have identified the following characteristics of home environment or parental child rearing practices – permissiveness, willingness to devote time to the child, parental guidance, parental aspiration for achievement, provisions for the child’s intellectual needs, affective rewards, instrumental companionship, prescription, physical punishment, principlined discipline, neglect, deprivation of priviledges, protectiveness, power, achievement demands, indulgence, conformity, independence, dependence, emotional and verbal responsivity. Involvement with the child, avoidance of restriction and punishment, etc. There exists a great overlapping in the kinds of behaviour which are in association with different characteristics. 2.2 PERSONALITY THEORIES In 400 BC, Hippocrates, a physician and a very acute observer, claimed that different personality types are caused by the balance of bodily fluids. The terms he developed are still sometimes used today in describing personality. Phlegmatic (or calm) people were thought to have a higher concentration of phlegm; sanguine (or optimistic) people had more blood; melancholic (or depressed) people had high levels of black bile; and irritable people had high levels of yellow bile. Psychoanalytic theories: By the early years of the twentieth century, Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) had begun to write about psychoanalysis, which he described as ‘a theory of the mind or personality, a method of investigation of unconscious process, and a method of treatment’. Central to a psychoanalytic approach is the concept of unconscious mental processes– the idea that unconscious motivations and needs have a role in determining our behaviour. This approach also emphasizes the irrational aspects of human behaviour and portrays aggressive and sexual needs as having a major impact on personality. He developed a number of hypothetical models to show how the mind (or what he called the psyche) works: a) a topographic model of the psyche – or how the mind is organized; b) a structural model of the psyche – or how personality works; and c) a psychogenetic model of development – or how personality develops. Trait theories – aspects of personality: Traits – or descriptors used to label personality – have their origins in the ways we describe personality in everyday language. In the early years of personality theory, many theorists used the term types to describe differences between people. Sheldon, for example, categorized people according to three body types and related these physical differences to differences in personality. Endomorphic body types are plump and round with a tendency to be relaxed and outgoing. Mesomorphic physiques are strong and muscular, and usually energetic and assertive in personality. Ectomorphic body types are tall and thin and tend to have a fearful and restrained personality. Not only is it unlikely that personality can be mapped to body type, but the idea that all people can be allocated to a small number of categories is challenged by modern trait theories. Modern theorists view traits as continuous rather than discrete entities. So, rather than being divided into categories, people are placed on a trait continuum representing how high or low each individual is on any particular dimension. The assumption is that we all possess each of these traits to a greater or lesser degree, and that comparisons can be made between people. Cattell’s 16 trait dimensions Like Allport, Cattell believed that a useful source of information about the existence of personality traits could be found in language, the importance of a trait being reflected in how many words describe it. Cattell called this the lexical criterion of importance. Building on Allport’s work, Cattell collated a set of 4500 trait names from various sources and then removed obvious synonyms and metaphorical terms, until he reduced these to 171 key trait names. He collected ratings of these words and factor-analysed the ratings. His subsequent investigations yielded three types of data, which he categorized as follows: 1. L-data – life record data, in which personality assessment occurs through interpretation of actual records of behaviour throughout a person’s lifetime (e.g. ...
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