soc giddens 2 essentials.ppt

soc giddens 2 essentials.ppt - Cultur e and Societ y...

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Chapter 2 Culture and Society Anthony Giddens Mitchell Duneier Richard P. Appelbaum
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The Sociological Study of Culture What Is Culture? Values Language Norms Symbols Material goods
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The Sociological Study of Culture What Is Culture? Values Abstract ideals shared by group Can change over time May differ within culture Norms Principles or rules of social life Can change over time May differ within culture Material Goods Physical objects a society creates that influence the ways people live Material culture is rapidly becoming globalized
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The Sociological Study of Culture Culture and Society Society is a system of interrelationships that connects individuals Culture could not exist without society and vice versa Culture serves as an important source of conformity within society Members learn norms in childhood Social control is used when a person fails to conform
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The Sociological Study of Culture Culture and Change: A “Cultural Turn” in Sociology? Cultural turn : Sociology’s recent emphasis on understanding role of culture in daily life Cultural tool kit: variety of scripts to draw on depending on situation No single “reality” is applied to social situations
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The Development of Human Culture Early Human Culture Culture enabled early humans to compensate for physical limitations Made tools Hunted animals Used fire Made clothing Established cooperative way of life
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The Development of Human Culture Nature or Nurture? Are we shaped by biology or products of learning? Biologists, psychologists Emphasize biology Sociologists Stress role of learning and culture Humans make conscious choices, therefore neither biology nor culture wholly determines behavior
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The Development of Human Culture Nature or Nurture? (cont) Sociobiology Began in 1975 with Edward O. Wilson Genes influence physical traits and behavior Social scientists criticize sociobiology for claiming that likelihood of displaying certain behaviors (such as violence) is genetic
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The Development of Human Culture How Nature and Nurture Interact Sociologists acknowledge biology helps shape behavior but their main concern is how behavior is learned through interactions with society If biology were all-important, cultures would be similar or identical but this is not true All cultures have common characteristics (language, sexual behavior, etc.) but large variety exists in how they are played out
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The Development of Human Culture Cultural Diversity Industrialized societies have subcultures Diverse cultures within a society Different languages or cultural patterns Culture helps perpetuate norms, but subcultures offer opportunities for creativity and change such as the following: Can reject prevailing values and norms Can promote alternatives to dominant culture Can act as force of change
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  • Fall '15
  • Sociology, global culture, Sociological Study of Culture

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