Strength & ConditioningPrinciples of Resistance Training & Program DesignPEM 2104 SPRING 2017TRAMI WILLEY, MS, EPSPORT & EXERCISE SCIENCEUNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA
What is resistance training?Resistance training (RT) - improve muscular fitness by exercising a muscle or muscle group against external resistanceMethodsFree weightsMachinesBody weightResistance Bands
What are some athleticbenefits of resistance training? Improvements to strengthImprovements to powerImprovements to hypertrophy (growth in size)Improvements to muscle enduranceIn practical terms: sprint faster, better at agility (changing direction quickly without losing momentum), jump higher, punch harder, maintain strength and power longer
What are some healthbenefits of resistance training?Prevents loss of muscle massPrevents muscle weaknessPrevents osteopenia and osteoporosisLowers body fatDecreases blood pressureImproves cholesterolStrengthens the heart
Where to start? Program DesignVARIABLESThese get manipulated for depending on goalsExercise SelectionExercise OrderExercise IntensityLength of restTraining volumeTraining frequencyPRINCIPLESThese are the basic rules for effective programsSpecificityOverloadProgressionIndividuality ReversibilityDiminishing Returns
The PrinciplesSPECIFICITY PRINCIPLE –The exercises you choose should be specific and relevant to your desired outcome. OVERLOAD PRINCIPLE– If you want to see improvements, you have to train the muscles in a way to which they are unaccustomed.PROGRESSION PRINCIPLE– If you want improvements to continue, you have to keep adding to the training stimulus.
The PrinciplesINDIVIDUALITY PRINCIPLE– People respond differently to the same training stimulus.REVERSIBILITY PRINCIPLE– Remove the training stimulus and the improvements disappear.PRINCIPLE OF DIMINISHING RETURNS – The better trained you are, the less improvements you see.Beginners experience large gains after a short amount of time.Experienced athletes make small gains over a long period of time.
NEEDS ANALYSISThis is the beginning for any program – beginner through eliteAnalyze 3 areas of needs:PhysiologicalWhat is the sport or activity?What energy system needs to be used? Are you training for strength, power, agility or body composition?Biomechanical–What is the range of motion? What joints need to be trained? Medical– Are there previous or common sites of injuries?
EXERCISE SELECTIONRT exercises fall into 2 major categoriesSTRUCTURAL / CORE (core meaning fundamental or central – not abdominals)Coordinated action between multiple muscle groupsInvolve 2 or more primary jointsReceive priority in exercise selection because of greater transfer to sport activityExamples: Squat, bench, push press, deadlift, power clean