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Textbook Notes Final Chapter 7 – Contraception and Pregnancy Options Ancient Forms of Birth Control - Silphium, a plant used in ancient Greece for preventing pregnancy So popular it went extinct - Deadly substances like mercury were ingested for contraception in ancient cultures - Ancient Egypt: women inserted tampons soaked in crocodile dung, honey and other things to prevent pregnancy (used before intercourse) - Prevention of penile-vaginal intercourse: menstruation taboos, girls who had begun menstruating had to seclude themselves from the general population - Intra-crural intercourse: called “soma”, sex but without penetration - Most widely and consistently used method was infanticide – still used in some locations today Common criticism of Chinas family planning law is that it drives parents to commit infanticide A Brief History of Birth Control in Canada - Using/selling/disseminating contraception was a crime under Canada’s criminal code in 1892, thought of as “corrupted morals” - Birth control movement started among higher educated/wealthier classes - Although many were arguing that everyone should have contraception, women still discouraged from asking doctors for it, and doctors reluctant to give it - First formal contraception advocacy organization Vancouver, 1923 - First birth control clinic Hamilton, 1932 - Following the baby boom, increase in global concerns about population control more accepting of birth control - International Planned Parenthood formed in 1963 - Under Pierre Trudeau – birth control removed from the Criminal Code and legal for doctors to prescribe birth control pills for contraceptive purposes rather than for menstrual problems - Access to contraceptives not equal now in all regions of the country and some remains highly controversial Modern Methods of Birth Control - Major breakthrough came in the sixteenth century Gabriello Fallopio’s invention of reusable condoms – made from linen and later made of animal intestines - Catholic Church – painted contraceptives in negative light. Wasn’t until twentieth century and political activists that western societies looked at birth control favorably - Many variety, but most Canadians only know the male condom and oral contraceptive pills - Effectiveness of these methods depends on how they are used, with perfect use leading to much better results than typical use
- Without using any form of contraception, the probability of getting pregnant within a year is 85% if you are sexually active Hormonal Contraceptives - Reversible methods of birth control that protect against pregnancy but not STI’s - Women taking hormones that drastically reduce chances of pregnancy - Work by inhibiting ovulation, altering the endometrium, and/or altering the consistency of the cervical mucus - To be effective, must be taken regularly whether or not the woman engages in sexual activity - Many women choose hormonal contraceptives because when used properly, these methods are more effective in preventing pregnancy than most non-

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