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Where did we find Hinduism? 1)Himalayas ●ode to the Gods2) Ganges river ●river is considered sacred and a Goddess (all rivers are considered Goddesses) --- woman offering History●Persian Geographical term○Indus / Sindhu river●Arabic Texts●British at end of 18th c ○Hindoo= people of Hindustan (stan means people) referring to Northern India■***anyone who is not a christian, buddhist, muslim, Sikh, or Jain (British conception)●Hindu-ism (Hindu was basically an area or geographical term… and originally anyone who did not identify as those religions)Defining Characteristics●Oldest living religion : 2500 BCE to 1500 BCE○Judaism - 1500 BCE○Buddhism - 5th 6th c BCE○Christianity 1st c BCE○Islam 6th c BCE●No historical founder ○Eternal Religion - no Jesus or Mohammed●No common creed (religious text, Koran, Torah, Bible, or anything telling you howto act)●***Time is cyclical (after death, there is rebirth… after destruction, there is rebirth)○*****Reincarnation■1st stage ●Karma (cause and effect… effect present and future life and reincarnation… can build good or bad karma)■2nd stage●Samsara (cycle of life, death, and reincarnation)■3rd stage●Moksha (liberation or freedom - final release of tribulations
of samsara)■Dharma (law, duty, and what you're supposed to do)■Atman (soul that sticks even through death) ■Karma (cause and effect… effect present and future life and reincarnation)■Brahman (ultimate reality) ****Fulfill dharma(duties, based upon class, age), build up good karma, atman becomes reincarnated into something good, goal is moksha (not desiring worldly things) which is being released --- can be released from (3 margas) good karma, all in order to become one with Brahman●330 million gods and goddesses●Identification not based on faith, but rather where you fit into social hierarchy and the gods and goddesses you worship (certain deities more important to some in different communities & classes)○Conversion - is not a thing in Hinduism… no such thing as converting to Hinduism… do not try to convert or keep people… “either born a Hindu ornot”●Practice takes precedence over belief - no central authority to enforce rules… allowed for regional variation… many forms, festivals○Core unity What a Hindu Does●The practice is essential and the important part330 Million Gods●Shown within BrihadaranyakaUpanishad - apart of the ○Vedas○How many Gods? (varies and depends on who it is)○“Nama Rupa”- name and form… idea that there are many different Gods and Goddesses… taking on different forms of essentially the same divine being●The one and the many’○Polytheism (lots of gods and goddesses)■Shiva, Vishnu, Devi○Henotheism / Kathenotheism (plurality of gods, but only one worshipped