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D E LA PARODIA AL PATETISMO: LORCA, DALÍ Y BUNUEL C ANDELAS G A L A Wake Forest University RESUMEN Este ensayo analiza las conexiones artísticas y personales entre Lorca, Dalí y Buñuel en torno al viejo conflicto entre la vida y el arte, el deseo y la rea- lidad. Tomando como parámetros las nociones de parodia y patetismo, el ensa- yo examina una selección de obras de la década de los 20 y su crítica de las instituciones sociales, especialmente la iglesia. De ese tono jocoso y rebelde, los artistas pasan a obras cargadas de patetismo, reflejo de los cambios socia- les y políticos, y que aquí se examina en torno al tratamiento en cada uno de ellos del icono de la encajera, procedente del cuadro La Encajera de Ver- meer. Mediante la consideración de ciertos escritos teóricos de cada uno de ellos, se concluye con una consideración de la distinta visión personal y esté- tica a que cada artista llega en su época de madurez. PALABRAS CLAVE Encajera, guasa, parodia, patetismo, deseo, represión, frustración, icono, vanguardias, duende, método paranoico-crítico. La a m i s t a d y c o l a b o r a c i o n e s e n t r e L o r c a , D a l í y B u ñ u e l c o n s t i t u y e n u n o d e l o s c a p í t u l o s m á s i n t e r e s a n t e s d e la h i s t o r i a c u l t u r a l d e l s i g l o xx. M u c h o s e h a e s c r i t o al r e s p e c t o , t a n t o s o b r e el a s p e c t o p e r s o n a l d e d i c h a a m i s t a d c o m o s o b r e las o b s e s i o n e s artísticas q u e l o s t r e s a m i g o s c o m p a r t i e r o n . Mi o b j e t i v o e n e s t e e n s a y o e s e x a m i n a r u n á r e a e n la q u e l o s t r e s c o i n c i d e n , la d e s u p r o t e s t a c o n t r a u n a r e a l i d a d c u y a s r e g l a s l e s p o n í a n l í m i t e s al l o g r o d e s u s d e s e o s y r e a l i z a c i ó n p e r s o n a l . M e d i a n t e d i c h o e x a m e n p r o p o n g o l l e g a r a u n m e j o r e s c l a r e c i m i e n t o d e l s e n t i d o c e n t r a l d e la o b r a d e e s t o s a u t o r e s y d e s u e n t e n d i m i e n t o d e l a r t e y la v i d a . E n s u s d i f e r e n t e s m e d i o s artísticos, Lorca, D a l í y B u ñ u e l a f r o n t a r o n el c o n f l i c t o e n t r e el á m b i t o p e r s o n a l y el s o c i a l . E n e s t e e n s a y o p r o p o n g o a n a l i z a r d i c h o c o n f l i c t o a p a r t i r d e d o s c o o r d e n a d a s , CAUCE, Revista de Filología y su Didáctica, 22-23, 1999-2000 /págs. 469-488 469
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CANDELAS GALA la p a r o d i a y el p a t e t i s m o p o r c o n s i d e r a r q u e d i c h a s n o c i o n e s o f r e c e n u n i n s t r u m e n t o i d ó n e o p a r a e n t e n d e r la a c t i t u d d e e s t o s artistas r e s - p e c t o a s u v i d a y o b r a . A u n q u e a m b o s , p a r o d i a y p a t e t i s m o , s e d a n j u n t o s e n m u c h a s d e las o b r a s , y a p a r e c e n a l o l a r g o d e la e v o l u c i ó n artística y p e r s o n a l d e e s t o s artistas, la p a r o d i a
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  • Summer '19
  • Paz Zagaceta
  • Italia, Entendimiento, Lorca, Estética, Dialogues of Plato

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