Lecture 4.pptx - Psychology of Women PSYC 3480 M Agenda...

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Psychology of Women PSYC 3480 M January 24, 2019
Agenda Questions from last time Questions about next week’s test? Reviewing grades with TA Gender and Cognitive Abilities Gender and Achievement Gender and Social/ Personality Characteristics
Gender, Cognitive Abilities, and Attitudes About Achievement Genders are more alike than different There is overlap between genders People tend to emphasize differences and ignore similarities
Reminder: Cautions About Research Biased samples impact results Researchers’ and participants’ expectations influence results Distributions of scores tend to overlap Researchers rarely find gender differences in all situations Gender differences in cognition are not substantial enough to majorly impact career choice
Reminder: Cautions About Research Gender differences in cognition are not substantial enough to majorly impact career choice: An example In the US, 12% of engineers are women Engineering requires spatial skills Men are somewhat more likely than women to obtain high scores on spatial ability tests A job may require that only people with spatial scores in the top 5% are hired; 7% of males and 3% of females are in the top 5% on spatial abilities So about 30% of individuals with superior spatial abilities are female 30% is much greater than 12%  Other factors account for the 18% gap
Cognitive Abilities Showing No Consistent Gender Differences General intelligence (IQ) But males’ IQs tend to be more variable than females’ IQs General knowledge (e.g., history, geography) Complex cognitive tasks Multi-tasking (in contrast to media claims)
Multitasking Revisited Stoet et al. (2013) Researchers compared performance of 120 women and 120 men in a computer-based task-switching paradigm Men and women performed more slowly when two tasks were rapidly interleaved than when the two tasks were performed separately. This slow down was significantly larger in the male participants (Cohen’s d = 0.27) So there was a significant but small effect
Cognitive Abilities Showing Gender Differences Memory Women tend to score higher on various memory tasks: Remembering lists of words after a delay Remembering events from their own lives But mothers are more likely to discuss emotional topics with daughters than with sons Recognizing faces Remembering previously seen objects Women and men are similar at remembering abstract shapes
Cognitive Abilities Showing Gender Differences Verbal Ability Girls have larger vocabularies than boys before age 2 but these differences disappear by age 3 In adults: similar abilities in vocabulary, word associations, reading comprehension, learning languages, spelling Women are slightly higher in verbal fluency and writing ability Unclear whether differences have real-world job implications Learning disabilities occur 4-5X as often in boys than girls as measured by the school system, and 1.2-2X as often as measured by objective tests

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