Chapter 13 Notes.docx - Chapter 13 Notes Video 1 Antifreeze...

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Chapter 13 Notes Video 1 Antifreeze in frogs Unlike most cold blooded animals, wood frogs have the ability to survive very cold temps by hibernating in a suspended “frozen” state In its frown state, a wood frog has no heartbeat, no blood circulation, no breath, and no brain activity Their vital functions can be revived with 1-2 hours of thawing Most cold blooded animals cannot survive freezing temps b/c the water within their cells freeze and frozen water(ice) expands, destroying or causing irreversible damage to cells Wood frogs survive freezing temps b/c of their physiological ability to “flood their blood” with a larger amount of glucose(sugar water solution) prior to going into hibernation The high concentration of glucose in the bloodstream prevents the blood from freezing b/c concentrated solutions have a lower freezing point corresponding pure liquid Why should we study solutions? Interesting solutions Liquid solutions: blood, oceans, rivers, and lakes Solid solutions: metalloids and metals- electronics, coins Gaseous solutions: artificial respiration, food storage, air Interesting observations and applications about solutions Lakes that have salt water dry much less rapidly than those with fresh water (other factors being equal) Salts are sprinkled on roads in winter Osmosis plays an important role in the transport of molecules across cell membranes Reverse osmosis can be used for desalination of sea water Relevance of solutions to the scientist Biologist- blood Chemist- alloys Physicist- electronics Geologist- oceanography Engineers- purification of water using osmosis All living organisms- air Solutions Solutions are homogeneous mixtures Two or more substances make up a mixture A solution may be composed of a solid and a liquid, a gas and a liquid, or other combinations Solutions have a solute component and a solvent component
The majority component of a solution is called the solvent The minority component is called the solute The solute is dissolved into the solvent Solution formation is the result of the interaction of the intermolecular forces of solute and solvent particles Likes dissolve in likes Nature has a tendency toward spontaneous mixing Generally, uniform mixing is more energetically favorable Solution: a homogeneous mixture Solvent: the major component Solute: a minor component Solubility When one substance (solute) dissolves in another (solvent), it is said to be soluble When one substance does not dissolve in another, it is said to be insoluble The solubility of one substance in another depends on the following: When solutions with different solute concentrations come in contact they spontaneously mix to result in a uniform distribution of solute throughout the solution Like dissolves like Substances with similar types of intermolecular forces dissolve in each other When a solute dissolves in a solvent, solute-solute interactions and solvent-

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