AEM 220 notes - SOCIAL CHANGES: 1750-1914 Increase in...

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SOCIAL CHANGES: 1750-1914 Increase in population Better nutrition Medicine and hygiene Potential mass markets Increase in Knowledge Scientific revolution Industrial revolution Global trade Political changes Increase in money circulation Consolidation of the nation-state Periods of relative peace CHANGES IN THE ORGANIZATION OF PRODUCTION: 1750-1914 From Self-employment Put-out system Master-apprentice relationship To Subsistence standard of living: Exploration of surplus: International competitive pressure: Coercion: Destruction of the family and community relationship as known Wage Slavery
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“modern bureaucracy depends on a particular social structure: a citizen must not be able to survive on his or her own, but has to work for someone else.” 85% of U.S. working people work for someone else Principles of bureaucratic organization Specialization Formalization Hierarchy CHANGES? Society Mass consumption Mass education Individualism Increase in knowledge The routinization of technology and innovation The information revolution Constant increase in resources dedicated to science and discovery Political changes Relative decline of the nation-state Acceptance of liberal politics and market economics Globalization THE NEW PARADIGM Everyone is an entrepreneur The organization as a project team Network organization
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Dynamic or Traditional Authority -Traditional leaders are those whose authority is defined by custom and tradition -Emperors and kings would be traditional leaders -The weakness of traditional leadership is its dependence upon precedent, the essence of tradition. Traditional leadership is likely to be inflexible Charismatic Authority The charismatic leaders attract followers on the basis of exceptional personal or moral qualities, eg. MLK, Gandhi, Christ, Mohammed Charismatic leadership suffers succession upheaval when the leader dies. It may also suffer problems when the leader ages Charismatic authority is unstable; either disappearing or reverting to traditional or rational-legal authority Rational-Legal Authority Leadership based on purposeful reasoning and formally defined, accepted structures of rules and procedures The power of those in authority depends on their acceptance of due legal process and qualification
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ownership according to purposeful, agreed rules appointment on technically defined grounds (merit and technical expertise) election membership of a decision-making group and adherence to the rules of decision making The bureaucratic organization equal treatment for all employees reliance on expertise, skills, and experience relevant to the position the organization owns the product and the means of production specific standards of work and output extensive record keeping (control) establishment and enforcement of rules and regulations rules bind all members of the organization Managers Manage: Information People Actions Functions of management Planning Setting organizational goals and strategies to attain those goals Determining the resources needed to attain goals Setting standards Organizing
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AEM 220 notes - SOCIAL CHANGES: 1750-1914 Increase in...

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