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116_Sample_Chapter.pdf - CHAPTER 2 MANAGEMENT INTRODUCTION...

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CHAPTER 2MANAGEMENTINTRODUCTION2.1 MEANINGManaging is one of the most important activities of human life. To accom-plish aims that could not be achieved individually, people started forminggroups. Managing has become essential to ensure the coordination of individualefforts. Management applies to all kinds of organizations and to managers at allorganizational levels. Principles of management are now used not only for man-aging business but in all walks of life viz., government, military, social and edu-cational institutions. Essentially, management is same process in all forms of or-ganization. But it may vary widely in its complexity with size and level of orga-nization. Management is the life giving element of any organization.Definitions suggested by some of the management experts are presentedbelow:Henri Fayol:“Management is conduct of affairs of business, moving to-wards its objective through a continuous process of improvement and optimiza-tion of resources”.Koontz:“Management is the process of designing and maintaining an en-vironment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accom-plish selected aims”.Mary Parker Follett: “Management is the art of getting things donethrough people”.George R. Terry:“Management is a process consisting of planning, orga-nizing, actuating and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish theobjectives by use of people and resources”.ILO:“Management is the complex of continuously coordinated activityby means of which any undertaking administration/public or private serviceconducts its business”.Lawrence A. Appley:“Management is guiding human and physical re-sources into a dynamic, hard hitting organization until that attains its objectivesto the satisfaction of those served and with a high degree of morale and senseof attainment on the part of those rendering the service”.
6Management and Entrepreneurship¾Deciding in advance what to do, how to do, who has to do, when todo and where to do.¾Planning bridges the gap from where we are now to where we wantbe in future.Organising:Organising is a part of management that involves in estab-lishing an intentional structure of roles for people to fill in an organization. Toorganize a business well, it is required to provide all the useful things for itsproper functioning. They are raw materials, tools, capital and personnel. Thepurpose of an organization structure is to help in creating an environment forhuman performance. This involves in:¾Determination of activities required to achieve goals.¾Grouping these activities into department.¾Assigning such groups of activities to managers.¾Forming deligation of authority.¾Making provisions for coordination of activities.

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