Notes Ch 1-4.docx - 1 HSCO 502 TEST 1 STUDY GUIDE Chapter 1...

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1 HSCO 502 T EST 1 S TUDY G UIDE Chapter 1 Have a general understanding of historical perspective of developmental theory. (p. 6-7) The notion that children only gradually develop the cognitive and personality structures that will characterize them as adults first appeared in the writings of 17 th - and 18 th -century philosophers, such as John Locke in Great Britain and Jean-Jacques Rousseau in France. Most classic developmental theories emerged during the early and middle decades of the twentieth century. Timeline of selected influences on developmental science: page 7.
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2 HSCO 502 Be familiar with the learning points from the video on page 11. Pre-schoolers set the table for lunch, fill their plates, and eat lunch. They set the table and serve themselves food – choosing the drink they want, etc. Be familiar with the tenets of Eriksons’ developmental theory. (p. 11-12) The “Eight Stages of Man” – eight psychosocial stages: table on page 12 Downplayed Freud’s id as the driving force behind all behavior, and emphasized the more rational processes of the ego . Be familiar with the learning points from the video on page 15. 4 th grade teacher uses Modeling and Think-Aloud process. Model cognitive thinking in her mind to help kids to think themselves.
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3 HSCO 502 Be familiar with Bronfenbrenner’s model of ecological systems. (p. 19) Described all developments – including personality and cognitive change – as a function of proximal process (reciprocal interactions between an “active, evolving biopsychological human organism and the persons, objects and symbols in its immediate external environment.” (page 19) Proximal Processes – a person’s immediate interactions with people or with the physical environment or with informational sources (such as books or movies). Distal Processes – interactions within the organism (such as genes) or outside the immediate environment (such as features of the educational system or of the broader culture). Demand characteristics – behavioral tendencies that often either encourage or discourage certain kinds of reactions from others. Bidirectionality of proximal process: Change in the child fosters change in the environment leading to more change in the child and so on. Bronfenbrenner’s systems: o Microsystem o Mesosystem o Exosystem o Macrosystem
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4 HSCO 502
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5 HSCO 502 Understand the timeline line for developmental change. (p. 20) Interacting web of influences on development as the “architecture” of biological and cultural support. Successful adaptation is benefited more by biological supports in childhood than in adulthood. For adults, successful adaptation is more heavily dependent on cultural supports or protective factors.
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