mammogram Post a description of how the assessment tool or diagnostic test you selected is used in health care. Based on your research, evaluate the test or the tool’s validity and reliability, and explain any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Include references in appropriate APA formatting. Search the Walden Library and credible sources for resources explaining the tool or test you selected. What is its purpose, how is it conducted, and what information does it gather? Examine the literature and resources you located for information about the validity and reliability of the test or tool you selected. What issues with sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values are related to the test or tool? Are there any controversies or issues related to any of these tests or tools? Consider any ethical dilemmas that could arise by using these tests or tools. Mammogram Screening According to the National Cancer Institute (2017), mammogram is the standard screening in detecting breast cancer among women of average risk ages 40-74. Clinical and self-screenings have not been found to be consistently beneficial, while newer screening tools such as ultrasound, magnetic imaging (MRI), tomosynthesis and molecular breast imaging are still being evaluated for cost, validity and reliability (National Cancer Institute, 2017). As with all screening exams, there continues to be reevaluation of the validity, reliability, sensitivity, specificity and predictive value. Benefits of Mammogram Screening If the mammogram is a valid screening instrument, it should be able to differentiate between those with breast cancer and those without. In 2009, the US Preventative Services Task Force rated this screening as a B and indicate validity for those ages 50-74. The mammogram has a high sensitivity rate. The Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (2009) reported a sensitivity rate (indicating the ability to correctly identify cancer in those who have it) at 84%. The specificity of testing for those over the age of 50 is above 90% (Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, 2009), meaning that this screening also can
accurately identify those who do not have the disease. As a screening tool, there are potential negative impacts as well. Benefits Verses Harm Any health screening requires careful examination of cost verses benefits. Multiple randomized trials using mammogram screening reported 15-20% decrease in deaths related to breast cancer (National Cancer Institute, 2017). However, there is potential for negative impact as well. The National Cancer Institute indicates these could include: Unneeded treatments and surgeries for cancers that might not have progressed to a level requiring treatment.
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