CHAPTER 5: CRACKING THE ALPHABETIC CODE Phonemic awareness-Children learn to notice and manipulate the oral language (p. 146)->Phonics-children learn to convert letters into sounds and blend them. ->Phoneme-grapheme correspondences ->Spelling- students learn to segment spoken words into sounds and convert sounds into letters to spell words. PHONEMIC AWARENESSA child’s basic understanding that speech is composed of a series of individual sounds, and it provides the foundation for phonics and spelling. PA Strategies (p. 147) Identifying Sounds in Words-Children identify beginning and ending sounds in a wordCategorizing Sounds in Words-Classifying words by similar sounds and recognizing the odd word.Substituting Sounds to make new wordsBlending Sounds to Form WordsSegmenting a Word Into SoundsTeaching Phonemic Awareness (pp. 147-148)Sing songs, chant rhymes, read aloud wordplay booksActivities should be appropriate for 5- and 6-year-olds. Instruction should be planned and purposeful, not just incidental. Activities should be integrated with other components of a balanced literacy program (pp. 148-149). Sound-Matching ActivitiesSound-Isolation ActivitiesSound-Blending Activities (p. 151)Sound-Addition and -Substitution ActivitiesSound-Segmentation ActivitiesElkonin boxes can be used to teach students to segment words (p. 152)NUTURING ENGLISH LEARNERSUse familiar and meaningful words. Use poems and songs to help children learn to recognize and pronounce English sound patterns. Teachers need to familiarize themselves with students’ native language. Explicit instruction and extra practice are recommended (p. 154). Phonemic Awareness is a prerequisite for reading development (p. 155). There is a clear connection between a child’s phonemic awareness and their ability to read successfully.
PHONICSPhonics- the set of relationships between phonology [speech sounds] and orthography [spelling