NSCA+ch+23.ppt - Resistance Training for Clients Who Are Athletes NSCA Chapter 23 Factors in Program Design and Periodization Factors in Program Design

NSCA+ch+23.ppt - Resistance Training for Clients Who Are...

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Unformatted text preview: Resistance Training for Clients Who Are Athletes NSCA Chapter 23 Factors in Program Design and Periodization Factors in Program Design Understand how to apply overload and specificity to a resistance training program for a client who is training for a sport Periodization Program Design Understand the value, role, and application of a periodized training program Periodization Program Design Describe the cycles and phases of a periodized training program Periodization Program Design Understand how load and repetitions are manipulated in a linear and a non linear periodization model Periodization Program Design Design a linear and non linear periodization program Opportunity for Personal Trainer Work with large variety client types Generally, client sedentary lifestyle with limited recreational pursuits Generally, client very deconditioned or symptomatic of cardiovascular or metabolic medical condition or confirmed disease Opportunity for Personal Trainer Clients may be on the opposite end of the wellness continuum Athletes are very physically active both in job and in personal time Opportunity for Personal Trainer Clients who are athletes have training needs that are much different from those of the general population Opportunity for Personal Trainer Trainers need to develop a more advanced periodized program that will help athletic clients meet their competitive goals Factors in Program Design Resistance training integral part of total exercise program to enhance athletic performance Factors in Program Design Carefully planned RT programs - accepted on basis of scientific literature Effective methods used to improve body development and sport performance Factors in Program Design Two primary factors of resistance training - overload and specificity Factors in Program Design Combined these with principles of periodization to optimize the exercise stimulus Factors in Program Design Specificity: Technique used to train an athlete in a specific manner to produce a specific adaptation or training outcome Specificity - to strengthen chest muscles, perform exercise such as bench press Factors in Program Design Specificity - acronym SAID Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands The type of demand placed on body dictates the type of adaptation that will occur Factors in Program Design Athletes training for power in high-speed movements (baseball pitch, tennis serve) should attempt to activate or recruit the same motor units as their sport requires at the highest velocity possible Factors in Program Design Resistance Training Increase provides: muscular performance capabilities Improve sport performance Help to prevent injury Overload Principle Concept – Athlete must adapt to demands of greater physiological challenges to the neuromuscular system Overload Principle Training stress or loads placed on muscles must be progressively increased for gains to occur Overload Principle Apply overload by increasing amount of weight lifted in an exercise Overload Principle Without the stimulus of overload, even an otherwise well-designed program greatly limits an athlete’s ability to make improvements Overload Principle Sprinter uses gravityassisted and wind-resisted training, running downhill and parachute sprinting Plyometric for athlete advances from single to multiple jump drills or raise box height for depth jumps Overload Principle Incorporate more workouts in a week Include more exercises Include more difficult exercises Add sets to one or more exercises in workout Overload Principle Intent is to stress the body at a higher level than it is used to When principle is applied properly – overtraining is avoided and desired training adaptation will occur Specificity of Training Refers to personal trainer’s developing a program that trains an athlete in a specific way to produce a specific change or result Specificity of Training More similar the training activity is to actual sport movement – the greater the likelihood that there will be a positive transfer to that sport Specificity of Training Athlete may enhance speed and power with a nonsport-specific program Specificity of Training Most effective program will match the metabolic and biomechanical characteristics of training program to sport activity Specificity of Training This level of specificity will train the appropriate metabolic systems by including exercises that duplicate the joint velocities and angular movements of the sport Specificity of Training Design RT program to include at least one exercise that mimics the movement pattern of each primary skill of athlete’s sport Specificity of Training The more similar the training activity is to the actual sport movement, the greater the likelihood that there will be a positive transfer to that sport Specificity of Training Improving an athlete’s ability to generate force at very rapid speeds requires training at high velocities Specificity of Training Personal trainers should select power exercises and assign moderate loads to allow the athlete to perform the movements explosively Periodization of Resistance Training One of the most important developments in the technology of sport training has been the advancement of concepts related to periodization Periodization of Resistance Training Defined as the systematic process of planned variations in a resistance training program over a training cycle Periodization of Resistance Training Primary goals – manipulating volume and intensity by effectively selecting exercises Periodization of Resistance Training Research shows that this concept optimizes training adaptations Periodization of Resistance Training Primary advantage of this type of training – reduced risk of overtraining due to the purposeful time devoted to physical and mental recovery Periodization of Resistance Training Periodization - the systematic process of planned variations in a resistance training program over a training cycle Cycles and Phases Periodized programs are typically divided into three distinct cycles… Macrocycle Mesocycle Microcycle Cycles and Phases Macrocycle Largest division (cycle) Typically an entire training year Period of many months (up to four years for Olympic athlete) Comprised of two or more mesocycles (several weeks to a few months) Cycles and Phases Mesocycle Number of mesocycles depends on goals of athlete Depends on number of sport competitions contained within the period Divide into microcycles (one week to four weeks) Cycles and Phases Microcycles Range from one week to four weeks Include daily and weekly variations Cycles and Phases Phases are used to divide a resistance training program into five mesocycles Each phase with a primary goal or focus Hypertrophy Phase Hypertrophy phase: to develop a muscular and metabolic base for more intense future training using a resistance training program that includes sportspecific or nonsport-specific exercises performed at a high volume and a low intensity Hypertrophy Phase Very low to moderate intensity (50 – 75% of the 1RM) and very high to moderate volume (3 – 6 sets of 10 – 20 repetitions) Strength Phase Strength phase: To increase maximal muscle force by following a resistance training program that focuses on sport-specific exercises of moderate volume and intensity Strength Phase - Strengthening exercises are velocity specific Speed at which an athlete trains is directly related to speed at which strength increases Strength Phase High intensity (80 – 90% of the 1RM) and moderate volume (3–5 sets of 4–8 repetitions) Strength Power Phase Strength/Power phase: To increase the speed of force development and power by integrating sportspecific power/explosive exercises of low volume and high intensity Strength Power Phase High intensity (75-95% of the 1RM, depending on the exercise) and low volume (3-5 sets of 2-5 repetitions) Competition or Peaking Phases Competition or Peaking phase: To attain peak strength and power by performing a very high intensity and very low volume sport-specific resistance training program Competition or Peaking Phases Very high intensity (> 93% of the 1RM) and very low volume (1-3 sets of 1-3 repetitions) Maintenance Phase Moderate intensity (= 80-85% of the 1RM) and moderate volume (2-3 sets 6-8 reps) Active Rest Phase Active Rest phase: To allow physiological and mental recovery through limited low volume and low intensity resistance training or by having the athlete perform physical activities unrelated to their sport Active Rest Phase Recreational Sprinter activity: engages in recreational volleyball, racket sports, and swimming in a leisurely manner Performs low volume, non-sport specific resistance training with light loads Cycles and Phases Research shows: Greater strength and power gains can be achieved by repeating this set of five mesocycles more than once per year Cycles and Phases Concept of variation Vital factor that explains the advantage of performing the entire set of training phases three times in a single year instead of only once Variation in Exercise Selection Research shows: Variations in exercise selection for the same muscle group result in greater increases in strength and power than a program with no variation in exercises Variation in Exercise Selection Does not mean personal trainer has to vary exercises performed in every training session or that all exercises must be changed when one change is made Variation in Exercise Selection Changes in exercises may be made every two to three weeks, or some exercises can be varied on an every-other training session basis Variation in Exercise Selection Certain core exercises need to be maintained through the entire training program so that progress in the major exercises can be continuously made Variation in Exercise Selection Variations in exercise selection for the same muscle group result in greater increases in strength and power than a program with no variation in exercises Linear and Nonlinear Models of Periodized Resistance Training Nonlinear – varies intensity (load) and volume throughout the cycle Linear – Training intensity increases gradually and continually Training volume decreases gradually and continually Linear Periodization One mesocycles - Several weeks to a few months - Gradual continual increases in training intensity - Gradual continual decreases in training volume No variation in the assigned number of sets and repetitions within each mesocycle Linear Periodization First athlete completes a lower-intensity four to six week base training program Intro program allows athlete to learn exercise technique, gain an initial adaptation to resistance exercise stress, and prepare for the first training cycle Linear Periodization Loads typically are very light (15-20RMs) Base program important for beginners Some exercises may require up to a 5minute rest Loads for power exercises (push press, power clean) need to be somewhat lighter to permit rapid and explosive movements Linear Periodization Advancing program - involves gradual increase in intensity over multiple weeks Length of time devoted to a particular intensity load ranges from two to four weeks Linear Periodization Program ends with active rest phase prior to start of another complete training cycle or in season competitive period Hypertrophy/Endurance Phase 2-4 week phase (start of program) Perform 3-5 sets each exercise 8 to 12 reps (about 75% 1RM) 1-2 minute rest between sets and exercises Creates higher volume, lower intensity stimulus Strength Phase Use same length cycle of 2-4 weeks Perform 3-5 sets 5-6 reps (85% 1RM) 3-5 minute rest between sets and exercises Strength/Power Phase Next 2-4 weeks Perform only exercises that allow only 3-4 reps 3-5 sets (90-93% 1RM) Include power exercises (push press, power clean) with lighter loads to permit rapid and explosive movements Longer rest period Competition Phase 2-3 week time period Increase load, allow only 1-2 reps (95% 1RM) Slightly lighter loads for power exercises 3-4 sets each exercise 3-5 minute rest between sets & exercises Competition Phase Allows peaking of strength and power abilities, important for sports that require maximal strength and rapid force development Active Rest Phase At this point, athlete moves into the competitive season after a week of active rest Or formally completes a 1-3 week active rest period before returning to hypertrophy phase to repeat the periodized program Nonlinear Periodization Varies the intensity (load) and volume of the core exercises throughout the week Linear modulates load but keeps volume intact 4 day program: Mon heavy, Tue light, Thu power, Fri moderate Continue within-the-week (microcycle) for time period of weeks Nonlinear Periodization First – athlete completes 4-6 week base training – many reps, light loads Reinforce proper technique Use mesocylces - same time period as linear (12-16 weeks) Rotate different training sessions within a seven-day (or longer) microcycle Nonlinear Periodization Example 3 day program: Monday training - 5 sets, 3RM load - heavy Tuesday training - 3 sets 10 RM load - light Thursday training - 4 sets 6RM load moderate 4 Day Nonlinear Periodization Both the load and volume are modified throughout the week Monday -Nonlinear Periodization HEAVY - Emphasize muscular strength 3-4 sets each exercise with a 3-6RM load Recovery 3-5 minute rest Tuesday -Nonlinear Periodization LIGHTER loads permit more reps, but still repetition maximums (10-15RMs) 2-4 sets each exercise 1-2 minute rest Thursday -Nonlinear Periodization POWER – 3-4 sets, 2-4 reps, 30-60% 1RM Allows higher movement velocities Core exercises same number of sets but 24RMs Include Plyometric power exercises with medicine ball 2-3 minute rest – power exercises Friday -Nonlinear Periodization MODERATE uses 5-10% lighter than heavier day, or at least a reduced intensity Allow 8-10 reps 2-4 sets each exercise 1-2 minute rest 3 Day Nonlinear Periodization 5 sets with 3RM load - first day of week 3 sets with 10RM load - next training day 4 sets with 6RM load - last training day Load & Volume – modified throughout week Effectiveness of Linear and Nonlinear Periodized Programs Attributed to systematic variation that allows athlete to adequately recover from reps and loads assigned Nonlinear used to continue through season (especially long seasons - hockey) Effectiveness of Linear and Nonlinear Periodized Programs During in-season, training frequency is reduced and volume is adjusted in relationship to number of competitive events and volume of sport practice Effectiveness of Linear and Nonlinear Periodized Programs Since one type of workout will not benefit every athlete in the same way, a training program should blend existing exercise science knowledge Adhere to the specificity and overload principles A personal trainer can design a periodized resistance training program that meets the needs of the athlete and attends to the specific demands of any sport ...
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