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Schizophrenia Spectrum Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic and Other Psychotic DisordersDisordersClinical PsychopharmacologyDr. Ann Jordan
Disorders in this CategoryDisorders in this CategorySchizotypal Personality DisorderBrief Psychotic DisorderSchizophreniform DisorderSchizophreniaSchizoaffective DisorderSubstance/Medication-Induced Psychotic DisorderCatatonia
IntroductionIntroductionSchizophrenia is the most severe mental disorder in terms of:◦Severity of overall disturbance.◦Prognosis.◦Speed of recovery.◦Emotional and physical cost to client, family and society.
EpidemiologyEpidemiology1 out of every 100 people in the US will be diagnosed as schizophrenic; this 1% prevalence rate is consistent across cultures and time.Equal incidence among men and women.Schizophrenia can be classified as a neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative disease due to significant abnormalities in brain structure and functionHighly heritable condition.
Historical PerspectivesHistorical PerspectivesEmil Kraepelin (1856-1926)◦Used the term “dementia precox” to describe symptoms.◦Deterioration of cognitive processes (dementia) and early onset (precox).Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939)◦First used the term “schizophrenia.”◦The Four A’s: (1) Autism—inability to differentiate self from others; (2) Affect—absent or labile emotions; (3) Ambivalence—conflicting feelings that disturb relationships: (4) Disturbance of Association—difficulty in making logical connections between ideas.
DefinitionsDefinitionsSchizophrenia is a psychoticdisorder characterized by symptoms in judgment, emotions, perceptions, and behavior.Psychosis—a mental state in which there is an impairment in reality testing (lack of contact with reality).
Key Features of Psychosis Key Features of Psychosis (5)(5)Delusions—fixed, inaccurate beliefs about the world; persistent and false.◦Persecutory: “Others want to harm me.”◦Grandiose: “I have exceptional powers or abilities.” ◦Identification: “I am a famous person.”◦Referential: “I can control world events or others’ behavior.”◦Thought broadcasting/insertion: “I can send or receive thoughts from others.”
Key Features of PsychosisKey Features of PsychosisHallucinations—sensory experiences in the absence of external stimuli.◦Vivid, clear and involuntary.◦Auditory are the most common, then visual, tactile, smell, and taste.Disorganized Thinking (Speech)◦Confused ideas that seem incoherent when verbalized; loose associations.“Why do people comb their hair?” “Because it makes a twirl in life, my box is broken. help me blue elephant. Isn't lettuce brave? I like electrons. Hello, beautiful.”
Key Features of PsychosisKey Features of PsychosisGrossly Disorganized or Abnormal Motor Behavior (Including Catatonia)◦Behavior appears eccentric, disorganized.