Guerra Mundial.docx - World War I(often abbreviated as WWI or WW1 also known as the First World War or the Great War was a global waroriginating in

Guerra Mundial.docx - World War I(often abbreviated as WWI...

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World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1 ), also known as the First World War or the Great War , was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as " the war to end all wars ", [7] it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel , including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. [8] [9] It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history , [10] with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war , while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. [11] On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip , a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist , assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo , leading to the July Crisis . [12] [13] In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia . Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, and the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe. By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente —consisting of France , Russia and Britain —and the Triple Alliance of Germany , Austria-Hungary and Italy (the Triple Alliance was primarily defensive in nature, allowing Italy to stay out of the war in 1914). [14] Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. [15] General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; on the 31st, Austria-Hungary and Germany did the same, while Germany demanded Russia demobilise within 12 hours. [16] When Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th; France ordered full mobilisation in support of Russia on 2 August. [17] German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to rapidly concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks, then shift
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