CHAPTER 8: IDENTITYIDENTITY: WHY AN ADOLESCENT ISSUE?This is the first substantial reorganization and restructuring of the sense of self at a time when an individual can fully appreciate the significance of the changes.Physical Changes: changes associated with puberty ay prompt fluctuations in self-imageCognitive Changes: Adolescents are capable of thinking in systematic ways about hypothetical and future events.Social changes:o1) self-conception is the way individuals think about and characterize themselves (traits and attributes)During adolescence, self-conceptions become more abstract and complex, more differentiated, and better organized.Acting in a way that one knows is fake-false selvesIt also occurs among adolescents who report less emotional support from parents and peers; low self-esteem; and to be relatively more depressed and hopeless than their peerso2) self-esteem- how positive or negative and individual feels about themselves.Sense of identityCHANGES IN SELF-CONCEPTIONSDue to differentiationf self-conceptions during adolescence, adolescents are now able todistinguish between:oActual self: who the adolescent really isoIdeal self: who the adolescent would like to beoFeared self: who the adolescent dreads to becomeAn important aspect of having healthy self-concept and more socially appropriate behavior is to be able to balance one’s idealself with ones fearedself.Most teenagers have positive self-conceptionsPERSONALITY CHANGES IN ADOLESCENCEBetween adolescence and young adulthood, individuals on average become more extraverted, conscientious, agreeable, and emotionally stableCHANGES IN SELF-ESTEEMThere is no dramatic drop in self-esteem in adolescenceCompared with older adolescents (15 years and older) and pre-adolescents (8-11 years old), adolescents show the lowest levels of self-esteem, the highest levels of self-consciousness, and the shakiest self-image stability.COMPONENTS OF SELFESTEEMMost predictive of overall self-esteem is physical (appearance based) self-esteem, followed by peer relations (more in girls)Less predictive are academic and athletic ability or moral conduct self-esteem.
GROUP DIFFERENCES IN SELF-ESTEEMGirls:On average have lower self-esteem than boys.
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- Winter '15
- Developmental Psychology, Theory of Psychosocial Development