Geology study guide

Geology study guide - -7-10 KM thick-35-40 KM thick-denser...

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INTRODUCTORY MATERIAL Scientific method- a form of critical thinking; a pathway to study phenomena in the world COSMOLOGY -Nebulas- a cloud of gas or dust in space -Supernova- a short lived, very bright object in space that results from the cataclysmic explosion marking the death of a very large star; the explosion ejects large quantities of matter into space to form new nebulae -Formation of the solar system- -Formation of the Earth and Moon- -Age of the Earth- 4.5 billion years old EARTHS INTERIOR -Differentiation of the Earth- dense materials moved o the center and lighter materials rose to the top. Led to the formation of the core and mantle and eventually the crust. Gasses escaped from the interior, forming the early oceans and atmosphere. -Types of igneous silicate rocks- felsic (silicic), intermediate, mafic, ultramafic, -Characteristics of continental crust and oceanic crust- CONTINENTAL OCEANIC -Variety of rock types, but -Mafic Overall is silicic-intermediate
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Unformatted text preview: -7-10 KM thick-35-40 KM thick-denser than continental crust-Structure of Earth’s interior- crust, mantle, lithosphere, asthenosphere, moho, core.-How seismic waves work and how they determine Earth’s internal structure- -Earth’s magnetic field-PLATE TECTONICS-Alfred Wegner’s evidence for continental drift and pangea--How magnetic anomalies and magnetic field reversals preserved on the sea floor support theory of sea floor spreading--Hot spots-a location at the base of the lithosphere, at the top of a mantle plume, where temperatures can cause melting Mantle plumes- a column of very hot rock rising up through the mantle-Seamounts- an isolated submarine mountain-Triple junctions- a point where three lithosphere plate boundaries intersect-Craton- a long-lived block of durable continent crust commonly found in the stable interior of a continent-Orogen- a linear range of mountains-Orogeny- a mountain-building event...
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