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Unformatted text preview: Audience in a Rhetorical Situation
Study Concept The specific group of people the technical writing document is
Chronological Organizational Structure
Study Concept A type of organizational structure that lays out action steps in the
order in which they should occur
Useful for documents that explain step-by-step procedures or a
schedule of events
Top-Down Organizational Structure
Study Concept A type of organizational structure that starts with an overview of the
document at the top then describes the details of each section
Components of Ethical Communications
Study Concept Goals-the desired result of a communication
Means-how a message is communicated
Outcomes-the consequences that occur following a communication
Explicit Communication Rules
Study Concept The use of clear and straightforward verbal or written language
when communicating a message
Easier to interpret
Feedback Study Concept Information provided by an audience following some type of
Can be provided as spoken or written answers to questions and
other interactions with the audience
Implicit Communication Rules
Study Concept The use of mainly non-verbal cues when communicating a message,
such as body language, facial expression, gestures, postures, and
Can be difficult to interpret
Benefits of Technical Communication
Study Concept Communicates important information quickly and clearly to facilitate
the quick completion of a task
Saves businesses time and money
Technical Communication Style
Study Concept Attractive-different fonts, sizes, or styles helps direct and maintain
the reader's attention
Brief-allows reader to quickly understand information
Clear-makes the message easy to understand
Rewriting Study Concept The process by which the content and grammar of a document is
revised and edited
Compare and Contrast Organizational Structure
Study Concept A type of organizational structure that describes how things are
similar to and different from one another Useful for documents describing products that have been changed
Context in a Rhetorical Situation
Study Concept The reason why the technical writing document is needed
Study Concept A type of communication that is customized to the listener
expectations of the audience receiving it
Speaker's information and language are based on prior analysis of
Study Concept Data collected about the characteristics of a group of people
Examples: age, race, and gender
Study Concept A type of clear and concise writing that uses a variety of mediums to
communicate a specific objective to a group of people. Would not
include things like news articles, fiction, etc...
Traditional Technical Document
Study Concept A type of written communication used to inform/instruct an audience
educated in the specific area the document is written about
Examples: medical, research, or technical reports; programmer
Subjects of Technical Communication
Study Concept Focus is always a business's product or service Provides quick and clear information about its importance and how it
is created and used
Study Concept The ability of a writer to predict and meet an audience's needs in a
Purpose in a Rhetorical Situation
Study Concept The goal of the technical writing document
Disclosure Study Concept A written document used to maintain honesty between a business
and its customers by communicating business practices such as
conflicts of interest or preexisting problems with a product
Writing Study Concept The process by which a new document's information is recorded in
words and paragraphs
Problem-Solution Organizational Structure
Study Concept A type of organizational structure that states a problem and its
Useful for documents used to troubleshoot problem areas within a
Study Concept The purpose, audience, and context that must be considered when
drafting a technical writing document
Analysis allows for more effective communication of a message Disclaimer Study Concept A written statement that is used to protect a company from being
sued by its customers. For example, a sign reading 'Establishment
not responsible for lost or stolen items.'
Prewriting Study Concept The process by which a new document is researched and organized,
using techniques such a bubble-mapping or storyboarding, prior to
3 things to research about your audience in order to appeal to them
Study Concept You should research your audiences (1) attitudes, (2) beliefs, and (3)
Disadvantages of electronic communication
Study Concept (1) Overwhelming recipients with too much information, (2) It can be
expensive, (3) It can expose recipients' information
Way to keep your audience motivated and interested while making a
Study Concept Adapt your message, such as using humor or details you know they
will specifically care about.
Advantages of electronic communication
Study Concept (1) direct communication with customers; (2) messages that are
adjusted for each individual recepient
The 5 S's of Goodwill Messages
Study Concept (1) selflessness; (2) specificity, (3) sincerity, (4) spontaneity, (5)
short and too the point
Request for action
Study Concept Asking an employee to complete an action; an example of a
Examples of this type of workplace communication include videos,
interviews on TV, posters, etc.
Study Concept Visual communication
Examples of this type of workplace communication include phone
calls, in-person talks, and meetings
Study Concept Oral Communication
A message from a manager to their reports about a change in the
vacation policy is this type of message
Study Concept Informative
Three purposes for a business message
Study Concept (1) informing people
(2) persuading people
(3) creating goodwill
You-attitude Study Concept The friendly tone a goodwill message should take, focusing on the
This type of message is used to convince someone into action
Study Concept Persuasive message
When you adjust your message based on your understanding of who
your target audience is, you are _____ your message.
Study Concept Adapting
Examples of this type of workplace communication include social
media, email, and other technology
Study Concept Electronic Communication
Examples of this type of workplace communication include letters
and memos, training documentation, and even email
Study Concept Written communication
A message that conveys good news like an employee being
promoted is an example of this type of message
Study Concept Goodwill message
Sentences in this portion of a paragraph include evidence that
support the main idea
Study Concept Supporting details
This type of article is best used to demonstrate and provide
information about a specific product
Study Concept Online or Print Magazine Articles
These three parts of a paragraph are all important when writing any
Study Concept The three parts are 1) a topic sentence, 2) supporting sentences,
and 3) transitions
When writing a business presentation, establishing a _____ helps
connect you with the audience by providing a story or characteristic
with the reader.
Study Concept Commonality
Rule of Thirds
Study Concept A common rule used to visually balance a technical document by
diving the document in thirds vertically and/or horizontally
Maintaining visual consistency in business messages
Study Concept Margins, font, colors, and formatting should all
be consistent because it enhances the visual design of a message
Chronological Order Organizational Pattern
Study Concept This organizational pattern is structured by order of events or a
This portion of a paragraph is near the beginning and includes the
main idea of the paragraph
Study Concept The topic sentence
Study Concept Helping verbs like 'was' or 'has been.' These verbs make sentences
wordier, slower-paced, and often confuse readers with unintended
Study Concept Words and phrases commonly used in specific industries or trades.
These words should limited in business writing.
Technical Marketing Communication
Study Concept This type of technical writing promotes products through
advertisements like ads and newsletters
Using clichés and buzzwords in business writing
Study Concept These words and phrases are important to omit from business
writing because they may come across as unprofessional and lower
interest in what you have to say
Study Concept This sentence structure indicates that the ideas presented in a
technical document are all equally important
Study Concept This type of documentation provides users with a product manual
giving direction on how to use a product. Examples include manuals
for video game consoles, microwaves, and drones
Compare and Contrast Organizational Pattern
Study Concept This organizational structure looks at how similar or different a
situation or item is.
Cause and Effect Organizational Pattern
Study Concept This organizational pattern helps one explain why something
occurred, or the effects of something occurring, at work
Study Concept This type of language includes prejudice and/or derogatory terms
that can offend individuals. This should be avoided in the workplace.
General Organizational Pattern
Study Concept Structural and organizational method in which an organization's
business documents are written.
Thesaurus Study Concept Useful resource one can use to improve word selection by providing
a comprehensive list of synonyms. This can be especially helpful
when choosing robust words for a marketing campaign.
Active Verbs Study Concept Verbs that enhance comprehension of technical documentation with
clear and succinct sentences
Using restraint in business documentation
Study Concept Restraint in business messages includes avoiding clutter and
simplifying solutions to ensure your point is clearly made.
These words include strong nouns and verbs instead of overused
adjectives to describe a product message
Study Concept Robust/Specific Words
These words and/or phrases help paragraphs flow smoothly from
one to another
Study Concept Transition words
Importance of recognizable words in advertising campaigns
Study Concept Recognizable words ensure the reader will understand an
advertisement because the words are commonly used
3 steps to writing a good conclusion in a technical document
Study Concept 1. Begin with a general statement based on research findings
2. Show specific data that backs the statement
3. Analyze the data and conclude with recommendations
Conclusions in technical documents
Study Concept Summaries of important points in light of presented facts and data;
should help readers make decisions about the subject.
Analyzing and concluding in the conclusions of technical documents
Study Concept The investigation and connection of data to the main subject or
thesis statement. It shows how you reached your conclusion based
upon the data.
Background information in technical documents
Study Concept Context for the data - may include historical information,
contemporary research, social impact, or an explanation of the need
Conclusion structure in technical documents
Study Concept General to specific, beginning with an overview of the subject and
ending with specific data points.
Main reason to not use personal pronouns in technical writing
Study Concept Personal pronouns - such as 'I' and 'we' - make the writing seem
based in personal beliefs rather than researched facts. 3 reasons to make a recommendation in technical writing
Study Concept 1. The data and research support it
2. You are an expert and think it's warranted
3. It was requested
A type of technical document that does not require
Study Concept End-user manuals that simply describe how to use a product.
Purpose statement in introductions for technical documents
Study Concept A definitive sentence describing the intent of the document and the
scope of the material analyzed in the document.
Contents of a technical document's introduction
Study Concept 1. Contextual information
2. Statement of purpose
3. Conclusion sentence that helps define scope and audience
Headings in technical documents
Study Concept Short explanations that introduce the subject matter that will be
found in the following part of the text.
Identify the appropriate type of sentence for a purpose statement:
Interrogative, declarative, exclamatory, or imperative.
Study Concept Declarative
Abstract for a technical document
Study Concept A brief overview of the document that helps readers discern if
reading the whole report is relevant to their needs.
Recommendations in technical documents' conclusion
Study Concept The sentence or section that gives the author's opinion as to what
action(s) should be taken based upon the research-supported
3 common problems with conclusions in technical documents
Study Concept 1. Summarizing - should include more details
2. Improper pronoun use - stay formal and do not use 'I' or 'we'
3. Vague language
2 tips to writing a good recommendation in technical writing
Study Concept State one problem at a time and provide the recommendation using
Identify the problem: 'The product's color is an ugly yellow-green;
production should be delayed.'
Study Concept The recommendation is vague and seems to carry a personal bias.
Conclusion sentences in introductions for technical documents
Study Concept The final sentence of an introduction that describes what the
document will be discussing and what audience it is primarily
Introductions in technical documents
Study Concept Provides an overview of the subject of the document as well as the
purpose for the document. Identify the type of sentence: This report will show that cats are
better than dogs.
Study Concept Purpose sentence
Plagiarism Study Concept A serious ethical issue that involves copying writing you didn't
create. It should be avoided in all writing, including formal reports.
Study Concept This practice involves obtaining the permission of potential
participants in a study, or their legal guardians, after explaining
everything about the study, including benefits and risks.
Visual Aids Study Concept These tools can be used to help get a reader's attention and to
clarify material contained in a report. Examples include graphs,
charts and other pictures.
Study Concept This type of paper is written to carry out an examination of the
possible solution to a problem to determine if the solution is
Back Matter of a Report
Study Concept You can find this section at the end of a report. It includes a
reference page, any appendices associated with the report and a
glossary that clarifies any terms used in the report.
Executive Organization / Executive Summary Organization in Formal
Study Concept Reports that use this type of organizational structure arrange
information in a different order. The recommendations and
conclusions go after the introduction to show readers the main
Front Matter of a Report
Study Concept This information comes at the beginning of a report. It generally
contains a title page, an abstract, a cover letter, a list of any
illustrations in the report and a table of contents.
Subsections of the text of a report
Study Concept These are smaller sections used to address the subject covered by
the report. They can include information about risk assessment,
market analysis, projected costs and more.
Study Concept This is sometimes included in the front matter of a report. It
summarizes all the report's key points so that they can be
Study Concept A type of research supported by hard facts. Examples can include
price lists or information about the prices of components.
Study Concept You conduct this kind of research when you gather non-numeric
data. If you're using information from quotes or interviews, it is this
kind of research.
Study Concept Writing this kind of paper involves looking at information about
complex issues in order to develop conclusions. These conclusions
are then used to formulate recommendations in a structured way.
Traditional Organization in Formal Reports
Study Concept A method of organizing reports that includes an introduction,
background information, requirements, evaluations, conclusions and
then a recommendation.
Order of sections in the traditional format of a recommendation
Study Concept Introduction
Background and Requirements
Category by Category Comparisons
Conclusions and Recommendations
Text of a Report
Study Concept The section of the report that comes after the front matter. In this
area of a report you will find the introduction, background
information about the report's subject and facts about a problem.
Study Concept A report written to compare products or services against one
another. The goal of this report is to decide which option will be best
for the business or organization.
Investigating business opportunities in a report
Study Concept The written work that analyzes business actions, such as making
new investments and products or buying out other companies Drawing conclusions (in business reporting)
Study Concept In an analytical business report, conclusions, which may include
recommendations, are drawn after facts have been presented
3 types of analytical reports
Study Concept 1. Investigating business opportunities
2. Problem-solving reports
3. Feasibility studies or justification reports
4 types of informational reports
Study Concept 1. Decision-making
Trends (in business reporting)
Study Concept The general direction or patterns of development in an area
Study Concept Written works containing facts and data, but which do not analyze,
parse the information, or give recommendations
An examples is an overview of a company's finances for the
Study Concept Usually in regard to finances, these reports show a company's
adherence to official regulations. Problem-solving report
Study Concept Write-ups that include problems and potential solutions
An example of when this type of report would be used is if a new
product has a design flaw that forces it to be recalled
Study Concept Regular write-ups that reflect the development of an ongoing project
Justification reports (feasibility studies)
Study Concept This type of written work accounts for a group's history of decisionmaking and assesses the practicality of a new proposal.
Study Concept Written work that scrutinizes data for specific business
Study Concept Write-ups and feedback on a business's operations for monitoring
Wiki Study Concept A company-hosted website that allows employees to edit content
and share that content with each other as well as customers and
Recommendations (in business reporting)
Study Concept Portions of analytical business reports that provide possible actions
a business could take in light of relevant information Policy reports
Study Concept The codes, policies, and procedures associated with specific
An example of when this report would be used is if a company
updates its sexual harassment code
Study Concept A type of document shared outside an organization that is used to
evaluate options for solving a problem
Three main types: evaluation, feasibility, and recommendation
Study Concept A type of electronic communication in which messages related to a
product or service, like current promotio...
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