technical writing flashcards.docx - Audience in a Rhetorical Situation Study Concept The specific group of people the technical writing document is

technical writing flashcards.docx - Audience in a...

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Unformatted text preview: Audience in a Rhetorical Situation Study Concept The specific group of people the technical writing document is written for Chronological Organizational Structure Study Concept A type of organizational structure that lays out action steps in the order in which they should occur Useful for documents that explain step-by-step procedures or a schedule of events Top-Down Organizational Structure Study Concept A type of organizational structure that starts with an overview of the document at the top then describes the details of each section below Components of Ethical Communications Study Concept Goals-the desired result of a communication Means-how a message is communicated Outcomes-the consequences that occur following a communication Explicit Communication Rules Study Concept The use of clear and straightforward verbal or written language when communicating a message Easier to interpret Feedback Study Concept Information provided by an audience following some type of communication Can be provided as spoken or written answers to questions and other interactions with the audience Implicit Communication Rules Study Concept The use of mainly non-verbal cues when communicating a message, such as body language, facial expression, gestures, postures, and vocal qualities Can be difficult to interpret Benefits of Technical Communication Study Concept Communicates important information quickly and clearly to facilitate the quick completion of a task Saves businesses time and money Technical Communication Style Study Concept Attractive-different fonts, sizes, or styles helps direct and maintain the reader's attention Brief-allows reader to quickly understand information Clear-makes the message easy to understand Rewriting Study Concept The process by which the content and grammar of a document is revised and edited Compare and Contrast Organizational Structure Study Concept A type of organizational structure that describes how things are similar to and different from one another Useful for documents describing products that have been changed Context in a Rhetorical Situation Study Concept The reason why the technical writing document is needed Audience-Centered Communication Study Concept A type of communication that is customized to the listener expectations of the audience receiving it Speaker's information and language are based on prior analysis of the audience Demographics Study Concept Data collected about the characteristics of a group of people Examples: age, race, and gender Technical Communication Study Concept A type of clear and concise writing that uses a variety of mediums to communicate a specific objective to a group of people. Would not include things like news articles, fiction, etc... Traditional Technical Document Study Concept A type of written communication used to inform/instruct an audience educated in the specific area the document is written about Examples: medical, research, or technical reports; programmer guide Subjects of Technical Communication Study Concept Focus is always a business's product or service Provides quick and clear information about its importance and how it is created and used Rhetorical Awareness Study Concept The ability of a writer to predict and meet an audience's needs in a written communication Purpose in a Rhetorical Situation Study Concept The goal of the technical writing document Disclosure Study Concept A written document used to maintain honesty between a business and its customers by communicating business practices such as conflicts of interest or preexisting problems with a product Writing Study Concept The process by which a new document's information is recorded in words and paragraphs Problem-Solution Organizational Structure Study Concept A type of organizational structure that states a problem and its possible solutions Useful for documents used to troubleshoot problem areas within a company Rhetorical Situation Study Concept The purpose, audience, and context that must be considered when drafting a technical writing document Analysis allows for more effective communication of a message Disclaimer Study Concept A written statement that is used to protect a company from being sued by its customers. For example, a sign reading 'Establishment not responsible for lost or stolen items.' Prewriting Study Concept The process by which a new document is researched and organized, using techniques such a bubble-mapping or storyboarding, prior to being written 3 things to research about your audience in order to appeal to them when writing Study Concept You should research your audiences (1) attitudes, (2) beliefs, and (3) values Disadvantages of electronic communication Study Concept (1) Overwhelming recipients with too much information, (2) It can be expensive, (3) It can expose recipients' information Way to keep your audience motivated and interested while making a presentation Study Concept Adapt your message, such as using humor or details you know they will specifically care about. Advantages of electronic communication Study Concept (1) direct communication with customers; (2) messages that are adjusted for each individual recepient The 5 S's of Goodwill Messages Study Concept (1) selflessness; (2) specificity, (3) sincerity, (4) spontaneity, (5) short and too the point Request for action Study Concept Asking an employee to complete an action; an example of a persuasive message Examples of this type of workplace communication include videos, interviews on TV, posters, etc. Study Concept Visual communication Examples of this type of workplace communication include phone calls, in-person talks, and meetings Study Concept Oral Communication A message from a manager to their reports about a change in the vacation policy is this type of message Study Concept Informative Three purposes for a business message Study Concept (1) informing people (2) persuading people (3) creating goodwill You-attitude Study Concept The friendly tone a goodwill message should take, focusing on the recipient This type of message is used to convince someone into action Study Concept Persuasive message When you adjust your message based on your understanding of who your target audience is, you are _____ your message. Study Concept Adapting Examples of this type of workplace communication include social media, email, and other technology Study Concept Electronic Communication Examples of this type of workplace communication include letters and memos, training documentation, and even email Study Concept Written communication A message that conveys good news like an employee being promoted is an example of this type of message Study Concept Goodwill message Sentences in this portion of a paragraph include evidence that support the main idea Study Concept Supporting details This type of article is best used to demonstrate and provide information about a specific product Study Concept Online or Print Magazine Articles These three parts of a paragraph are all important when writing any business communication Study Concept The three parts are 1) a topic sentence, 2) supporting sentences, and 3) transitions When writing a business presentation, establishing a _____ helps connect you with the audience by providing a story or characteristic with the reader. Study Concept Commonality Rule of Thirds Study Concept A common rule used to visually balance a technical document by diving the document in thirds vertically and/or horizontally Maintaining visual consistency in business messages Study Concept Margins, font, colors, and formatting should all be consistent because it enhances the visual design of a message Chronological Order Organizational Pattern Study Concept This organizational pattern is structured by order of events or a storyline. This portion of a paragraph is near the beginning and includes the main idea of the paragraph Study Concept The topic sentence Passive verbs Study Concept Helping verbs like 'was' or 'has been.' These verbs make sentences wordier, slower-paced, and often confuse readers with unintended meaning Corporate Jargon Study Concept Words and phrases commonly used in specific industries or trades. These words should limited in business writing. Technical Marketing Communication Study Concept This type of technical writing promotes products through advertisements like ads and newsletters Using clichés and buzzwords in business writing Study Concept These words and phrases are important to omit from business writing because they may come across as unprofessional and lower interest in what you have to say Parallel Structure Study Concept This sentence structure indicates that the ideas presented in a technical document are all equally important End-User Documentation Study Concept This type of documentation provides users with a product manual giving direction on how to use a product. Examples include manuals for video game consoles, microwaves, and drones Compare and Contrast Organizational Pattern Study Concept This organizational structure looks at how similar or different a situation or item is. Cause and Effect Organizational Pattern Study Concept This organizational pattern helps one explain why something occurred, or the effects of something occurring, at work Discriminatory Language Study Concept This type of language includes prejudice and/or derogatory terms that can offend individuals. This should be avoided in the workplace. General Organizational Pattern Study Concept Structural and organizational method in which an organization's business documents are written. Thesaurus Study Concept Useful resource one can use to improve word selection by providing a comprehensive list of synonyms. This can be especially helpful when choosing robust words for a marketing campaign. Active Verbs Study Concept Verbs that enhance comprehension of technical documentation with clear and succinct sentences Using restraint in business documentation Study Concept Restraint in business messages includes avoiding clutter and simplifying solutions to ensure your point is clearly made. These words include strong nouns and verbs instead of overused adjectives to describe a product message Study Concept Robust/Specific Words These words and/or phrases help paragraphs flow smoothly from one to another Study Concept Transition words Importance of recognizable words in advertising campaigns Study Concept Recognizable words ensure the reader will understand an advertisement because the words are commonly used 3 steps to writing a good conclusion in a technical document Study Concept 1. Begin with a general statement based on research findings 2. Show specific data that backs the statement 3. Analyze the data and conclude with recommendations Conclusions in technical documents Study Concept Summaries of important points in light of presented facts and data; should help readers make decisions about the subject. Analyzing and concluding in the conclusions of technical documents Study Concept The investigation and connection of data to the main subject or thesis statement. It shows how you reached your conclusion based upon the data. Background information in technical documents Study Concept Context for the data - may include historical information, contemporary research, social impact, or an explanation of the need for document. Conclusion structure in technical documents Study Concept General to specific, beginning with an overview of the subject and ending with specific data points. Main reason to not use personal pronouns in technical writing Study Concept Personal pronouns - such as 'I' and 'we' - make the writing seem based in personal beliefs rather than researched facts. 3 reasons to make a recommendation in technical writing Study Concept 1. The data and research support it 2. You are an expert and think it's warranted 3. It was requested A type of technical document that does not require recommendations Study Concept End-user manuals that simply describe how to use a product. Purpose statement in introductions for technical documents Study Concept A definitive sentence describing the intent of the document and the scope of the material analyzed in the document. Contents of a technical document's introduction Study Concept 1. Contextual information 2. Statement of purpose 3. Conclusion sentence that helps define scope and audience Headings in technical documents Study Concept Short explanations that introduce the subject matter that will be found in the following part of the text. Identify the appropriate type of sentence for a purpose statement: Interrogative, declarative, exclamatory, or imperative. Study Concept Declarative Abstract for a technical document Study Concept A brief overview of the document that helps readers discern if reading the whole report is relevant to their needs. Recommendations in technical documents' conclusion Study Concept The sentence or section that gives the author's opinion as to what action(s) should be taken based upon the research-supported conclusion. 3 common problems with conclusions in technical documents Study Concept 1. Summarizing - should include more details 2. Improper pronoun use - stay formal and do not use 'I' or 'we' 3. Vague language 2 tips to writing a good recommendation in technical writing Study Concept State one problem at a time and provide the recommendation using distinct language. Identify the problem: 'The product's color is an ugly yellow-green; production should be delayed.' Study Concept The recommendation is vague and seems to carry a personal bias. Conclusion sentences in introductions for technical documents Study Concept The final sentence of an introduction that describes what the document will be discussing and what audience it is primarily targeting. Introductions in technical documents Study Concept Provides an overview of the subject of the document as well as the purpose for the document. Identify the type of sentence: This report will show that cats are better than dogs. Study Concept Purpose sentence Plagiarism Study Concept A serious ethical issue that involves copying writing you didn't create. It should be avoided in all writing, including formal reports. Informed Consent Study Concept This practice involves obtaining the permission of potential participants in a study, or their legal guardians, after explaining everything about the study, including benefits and risks. Visual Aids Study Concept These tools can be used to help get a reader's attention and to clarify material contained in a report. Examples include graphs, charts and other pictures. Feasibility Report Study Concept This type of paper is written to carry out an examination of the possible solution to a problem to determine if the solution is possible. Back Matter of a Report Study Concept You can find this section at the end of a report. It includes a reference page, any appendices associated with the report and a glossary that clarifies any terms used in the report. Executive Organization / Executive Summary Organization in Formal Reports Study Concept Reports that use this type of organizational structure arrange information in a different order. The recommendations and conclusions go after the introduction to show readers the main point. Front Matter of a Report Study Concept This information comes at the beginning of a report. It generally contains a title page, an abstract, a cover letter, a list of any illustrations in the report and a table of contents. Subsections of the text of a report Study Concept These are smaller sections used to address the subject covered by the report. They can include information about risk assessment, market analysis, projected costs and more. Executive Summary Study Concept This is sometimes included in the front matter of a report. It summarizes all the report's key points so that they can be understood easily. Quantitative Research Study Concept A type of research supported by hard facts. Examples can include price lists or information about the prices of components. Qualitative Research Study Concept You conduct this kind of research when you gather non-numeric data. If you're using information from quotes or interviews, it is this kind of research. Formal Report Study Concept Writing this kind of paper involves looking at information about complex issues in order to develop conclusions. These conclusions are then used to formulate recommendations in a structured way. Traditional Organization in Formal Reports Study Concept A method of organizing reports that includes an introduction, background information, requirements, evaluations, conclusions and then a recommendation. Order of sections in the traditional format of a recommendation report Study Concept Introduction Background and Requirements Options Category by Category Comparisons Conclusions and Recommendations Text of a Report Study Concept The section of the report that comes after the front matter. In this area of a report you will find the introduction, background information about the report's subject and facts about a problem. Recommendation Report Study Concept A report written to compare products or services against one another. The goal of this report is to decide which option will be best for the business or organization. Investigating business opportunities in a report Study Concept The written work that analyzes business actions, such as making new investments and products or buying out other companies Drawing conclusions (in business reporting) Study Concept In an analytical business report, conclusions, which may include recommendations, are drawn after facts have been presented 3 types of analytical reports Study Concept 1. Investigating business opportunities 2. Problem-solving reports 3. Feasibility studies or justification reports 4 types of informational reports Study Concept 1. Decision-making 2. Policy 3. Compliance 4. Status Trends (in business reporting) Study Concept The general direction or patterns of development in an area Informational reports Study Concept Written works containing facts and data, but which do not analyze, parse the information, or give recommendations An examples is an overview of a company's finances for the previous year Compliance reports Study Concept Usually in regard to finances, these reports show a company's adherence to official regulations. Problem-solving report Study Concept Write-ups that include problems and potential solutions An example of when this type of report would be used is if a new product has a design flaw that forces it to be recalled Status reports Study Concept Regular write-ups that reflect the development of an ongoing project Justification reports (feasibility studies) Study Concept This type of written work accounts for a group's history of decisionmaking and assesses the practicality of a new proposal. Analytical reports Study Concept Written work that scrutinizes data for specific business recommendations Decision-making reports Study Concept Write-ups and feedback on a business's operations for monitoring and control Wiki Study Concept A company-hosted website that allows employees to edit content and share that content with each other as well as customers and partners Recommendations (in business reporting) Study Concept Portions of analytical business reports that provide possible actions a business could take in light of relevant information Policy reports Study Concept The codes, policies, and procedures associated with specific corporate initiatives An example of when this report would be used is if a company updates its sexual harassment code Formal Report Study Concept A type of document shared outside an organization that is used to evaluate options for solving a problem Three main types: evaluation, feasibility, and recommendation E-mail Campaign Study Concept A type of electronic communication in which messages related to a product or service, like current promotio...
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