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EXERCISE 1_TheoryofEvolution_Review R2P

EXERCISE 1_TheoryofEvolution_Review R2P - EXERCISE 1 The...

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EXERCISE 1- The Theory of Evolution- Population Genetics NOTE THE OBJECTIVES ON PAGE 1 Define (and understand) natural selection: process by which favorable heritable traits become more common in successive generations of a population of reproducing organisms , and unfavorable heritable traits become less common. What is the difference between an allele, phenotype and genotype? An allele is one member of a pair or series of different forms of a gene Phenotype: any observed quality of an organism Genotype: the inherited instructions it carries, which may or may not be expressed. What is the difference between a dominant allele? Recessive allele? Dominant allele is the trait of the allele that is expressed in the phenotype Recessive allele is the trait of the allele, that is less common/ not expressed What is population genetics? Population genetics is the genetic study of discrete populations What are neutral genes? Neutral genes are genes which have no selective advantage or disadvantage; ex: malaria and sickle cell disease. What is adaptation? Adaptation over time can lead to what? (p.2) Adaptation occurs when selection causes different survival of a particular phenotype; overtime adaptation can lead to the formation of a new species. How does the book define a population? (p.2) The book defines population as a group of interbreeding individuals. Define gene pool. Gene pool is the sum of all the alleles and their relative proportions in the population. What are two common causes of changes in allele frequencies between generations? (p.3) Selection-the differential reproductive success of some genotypes. Genetic drift-results from chance changes in allele frequency in small populations or when genes are neutral . Is natural selection or genetic drift considered an adaptive change? (p.3) Natural selection is considered an adaptive change because it usually results from interaction with the environment.
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