1: One-dimensional PAGE • Incorrect pH of buffers. • Poorly polymerized gels. (i) High background staining along individual tracks. Samples with extensive proteolysis or that have been overloaded give high background staining. Impurities of sample buffer components could also result in background staining. (j) Protein streaking. This could be caused by protein precipitation followed by dissolution of the precipitates during electrophoresis. Be sure to centrifuge samples after denaturation to remove insoluble materials. Decreasing the amount of the sample to be loaded is recommended. Some proteins tend to aggregate at very high concentrations reached in the stacking gel. This problem can sometimes be overcome by using a continuous buffer system since this avoids concentration of sample pro-teins. (k) Protein dimer or double band formation. This could be the result of using aged sample buffer in which not enough thiols are present or due to the oxidative power of the polyacrylamide gel caused by residual persulfate
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