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Unformatted text preview: 10/1/2017 19th N Party congress 19th : delegates=>2287(->2280) 18-10-2017 to 24-10-2017 24-10-2017 ; delegates elect CC members 25-10-2017=>1st plenary/plenum session of CC:elect politburo discussion: whether to revive the party chairman Comment 1 Democratization and Political Participation in China do Chinese people think democracy important to China? Comment 2 Comment 3 To promote democracy now the main obstacle lies in one party rule of the state…… If this cannot be settled, then all the state’s matters will be in the hand of the one party. Elites cannot be recruited and good suggestions cannot be implemented. Democracy under this situation is empty talking only. (目前推行民主政治,主要關鍵在於結束一黨治國。……因 為此問題一日不解決,則國事勢必包攬於一黨之手;才智之 士,無從引進;良好建議,不能實行。因而所謂民主,無論 搬出何種花樣,只是空有其名而已) Do you agree these 3 comments? Zhou Enlai in1944 1st premier of China 1949-1976 Jiefang Daily, a CCP newspaper before 1949=> they criticize the party; in 28 october 1941 when KMT is in charge 1 10/1/2017 Mao Zedong also said in June 1944 that 2017 DSE History Exam Paper “How can a government not elected by the people represent the state? A state like this is a betrayal to the motherland.” Xinhua Daily News (1945), a CCP newspaper KMT said China cannot have democracy. This is a lie told by the ruling party (KMT), which wanted to consolidate its power. According to the quality of Chinese people, after practising democracy, China not only will not become chaotic, it will indeed become strong, even stronger than the longtime democracies like the US and UK. Do the Chinese think democracy important? to express their opinions, For more promises on democracy in China by the CCP before 1949, this is a must – read book! Xidan Democracy Wall (西單民主牆) in Beijing in Nov 1978 – Dec 1979 end of CR& death of Mao What can be summarized here based on the above? in that book: collected a lot of saying that CCP promised to people before they came into power it can’t be found in China’s bookstore now. many people promote democracy, think it’s a must 2 3rd plenum meeting, 11th =>signify the reform 10/1/2017 Deng not yet fully got back his power, sidelining at that time he is arrrested when he posts the poster he made up a big poster trigger nerve of party James Wang (1999: 265): 3 main trends of Wall Posters: 1) The condemnation of political persecution authorized by Mao condemn what Mao had done 2) Petitions for the redress of personal grievances inflicted upon those who were persecuted during the CR making agreements 3) Advocacy of democracy, justice and human rights 魏京生 (Wei Jingsheng), “The 5th Modernization” in 1978 and “Democracy or A New Dictatorship?” in 1979, was sentenced to 15 years imprisonment in 1979 disagree with Deng People’s Daily Since the reform period, China’s reform focused mainly on economic reform, with little emphasis on political reform, and democratization is not an (important) item in the agenda of the leaders ⽂文字 On August 18, 1980, Deng Xiaoping made a famous speech called “Reforms to the Governance System of the Party and the Government” (党和国家领导制度的改革) during a meeting of the Politburo meeting, arguing for the need to have political reform 3 10/1/2017 Reforming the Party Some major themes of political reform in China Past Tense: One man’s rule; Party Chairman Present Tense: Politburo strengthened; General Secretary 12th Politburo Standing Committee (1982) no permaninet 18 Administrative Reform Reduce the size of bureaucracy / no. of cadre two terms= each in 5 years First meeting of Central Advisory Commission, 13 Sep 1982 Deng was elected as the chairman of the CAC 19 let senior leaders to step down, having a platform to contribute to china 20 1. cut the overlap 2, cut their budget 4 10/1/2017 1988 allow them to adjust Some of the political reform items include in the 1980s: Reestablish Central Commission for Disciplinary Inspection, Supreme People’s Court and Supreme People’s Procuratorate impo Institutionalization of Succession, emphasizing on 4 aspects: revolutionary thoughts, young, knowledgeability and professionalism (革命化、年輕化、知識化及專業化) Some, but limited, political development: Direct election in the villagers’ committees and legislative body at grassroots levels (details discussed below) Set Retirement Age: Ministers (部長級): 65, Vice Minister (副部長 級): 60 National Leaders (State President, Premier, NPC Chairman): Only 2 terms maximum, with each being 5 years 22 In 9 December 1986, another demonstration broke out by students in this university in Hefei (合肥), Anhui province protesting against the lack of power to nominate candidates for the election of local people’s congress The news soon spread: 10 Dec: Shanghai Jiaotong University; 11 Dec: Beijing University; 12 Dec: 17,000 students demonstrated in Hefei 5 10/1/2017 1986 Students’ Movement in Shanghai It’s estimated that in Shanghai there were 30,000 people demonstrating and on 20 Dec in Tongji University only 20% students attended class and in some campuses classes stopped completely (Kwong: 1988: 971) Democratization of local People’s Congress election procedures Vice President of the University of Science and Technology in Hefei (方勵之) His ideas of “complete westernization”, criticism of socialism and Deng’s 4 Basic Principles as dogmatic and democracy could only from below, were all publicized in the Hefei in Dec 1986 Question of party’s legitimacy to rule 4 main students’ demands (Wang: 1999: 268) Exercise basic freedoms Accelerating the tempo (速 度) of political reform 6 10/1/2017 The whole event was finally pacified after the party began to silence the students Some key figures were purged. In addition to Fang Lizhi, Wang Ruowang (王若望), President of Writers Association, Liu Binyang (劉賓雁), an investigative reporter, and Wang Ruoshi (王若水) of the People’s Daily, were expelled from the Party and Su Shaozhi (蘇紹智) of CASS was taken away all party positions, but with the party membership retained The whole event was called bourgeoisie liberalization (資產階級自 由化). Hu Yaobang (胡耀邦), the General Secretary, was forced to step down and resigned from GS People’s Daily Zhao Ziyang (趙紫陽) was promoted from the Premier to the General Secretary Li Peng (李鵬) was promoted from the Vice Premier to the Premier ⽂文字 Moving Forward Towards the Establishment of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics Political Climax: Zhao Ziyang, the then General Secretary of CCP in the 13th National Party Congress in 1987, suggesting China to carry out political reforms 7 argue for 1. separation of Party & government in reality , party=political party only but it intervenes in government too much 10/1/2017 diff. of civil servant & Gangbu(cadres) ciVIL Servants: neutral Cadres: carry political tasks Establish social dialogue system to allow people to know and discuss major decisions of the country To reduce the size of the Chinese government; to combine departments; to spin off government functions from business enterprises; to prevent the strange phenomena of “simplification – expansion – resimplification – re-expansion” Establish the civil servant system Differential candidates elections, better mechanism of nominating candidates To perfect the socialist legal system <-having a vicious cycle why government growth/expansion? like a company more people in more places=> need more civil servants to provide more services=>enlarge the gov. One critic: The continuation of CCP leadership With 4th June Incident, every proposed political reform was called to a halt Separation of Power separation of power is not mentioned by Zhou as it’s taboo (even though he suggests separation of state &party) 8 10/1/2017 start in April “massacre” used=>emphasize lots of people killed 六四事件 (June Fourth Incident) June 4th Incident, how much do you know about it? 天安門廣場抗議 (Tiananmen Square Protest) 天安門屠殺 (The Tiananmen Massacre) 天安門廣場屠殺 (Tiananmen Square Massacre) 六四風波 (June Fourth Crisis) Some VI IV 8^2=64 May 35=June 4 Language has its meaning! to avoid the sensitive firewall Some Photos People’s daily= party newspaper 4月22日學生下跪請願 四君子 劉曉波、周舵、高新、侯德健 八九天安門事件 (Tiananmen Incident of 1989) Netizens: VIIV, 8平方 (82), 5 月35日 (May 35), 9875321事 件 (9875321 Incident) used by party CASS, important, think tank of Chin. Photos gov. no need to remember 學生民主運動 (Students’ Democratic Movement / Chinese Student Uprising of 1989) 八九民運 (Democratic Movement of 1989) 1989年春夏之交的政治風波 (Political Turmoil Between Spring and Summer of 1989) its long, so no one remember 六四大屠殺 (June Fourth Massacre) 70th Anniversary of May 4th Who is the one in the red circle? ***孔慶東 Kong Qingdong 9 10/1/2017 Zhou: persuade them to dismiss Some Photos previous premier wan Jiabao Reports indicate that there were more than some 300 cities in China breaking out strikes (Source: 52&extra=&page=3) According to data of CASS in 1996, there were 21 cities breaking out demonstrations and petitions with more than 5,000 participants and altogether there were 3.72 million people participated (source: ) Some Reports at that time, you may not be able to know the event in the internet like now do 10 10/1/2017 newspaper supported by party Some Reports they are willing to report this massacre What so Special? Donation Sales of Porn Magazine! Some Publications in English 11 these writers are willing to publish these books based on some information about 64 that is not validated yet they still publish those information, willing to risk their academic credibility Some Publications in Chinese 10/1/2017 stand couples of days and then crashed Sculpture: Goddess of Democracy = secretly use cassette tape to record Zhao English version Disclose many things in 1989 (eg criticize li Pang = ** = zhou Ziyang is prohibited from going out A rare view of the Goddess by Associated Press, 3 June 1989 Other Sculptures in HK 天安門大屠殺浮雕 國殤之柱 Chinese University HKU student union 12 10/1/2017 to cerebrate the 25 Olympics games Is it related? How? Public Demonstrations it is argued related to 64 <—— 7+1=8 of the June 4th Incident to Hong Kong don’t want to work/ live in this country famous people help protesters to escape with help & even triad 杜德偉 薰妮 蔡楓華 鄧麗君 呂方 侯德健 song attacking china anti-communist 13 10/1/2017 night Vigil . hku.hk/chines e/features/jun e4/datatables. html#q1 . hku.hk/chines e/features/jun e4/datatables. html#q1 14 10/1/2017 older people =more people saying no 3 Jun 2017, Ming Pao Daily, A1 3 Jun 2017, Ming Pao Daily, A1 do not pay visit to overseas countries China was isolated by the western states for some 2 years internationally Political development slows down or even stop completely What are the consequences of the event to China? 15 10/1/2017 Communist states fell one after another fall one after another happened in the same year The fates and fames of the leaders changed significantly 4th June Incident is a Why is it that the incident is still remembered after more than 25 years? Dissatisfaction about the political, social and economic situations of China by the people over the decade 16 1986- student demon. 1987 Hu falls from his position 1989 death of him trigger 64 10/1/2017 64=go to remourn Major Figure – Leader Hu Yaobang yardstick to consider whether chin. gov. is good or not he is thought to be clean, only one who wasn’t corrupted no. = first one wanted they went away when gov. want to arrest them Major Figure – Leaders Zhao Ziyang (General Secretary) Li Peng (Premier) Deng Xiaoping (Chairman of CMC) (1) xx,男,二十四歲,吉林人,北京大學歷史系學生,身高 一百七十三公分左右,尖下頗,頭髮較稀,門齒有洞齬, 體態較瘦,戴近視鏡,北京口音,嗓音沙啞。 (2) xx,男,一九六八年二月十七日生,維吾爾族,新疆維吾 爾自治區伊寧縣人,北京師範大學教育系八八級學生。身 高一百七十四公分,留中分頭,頭髮稍黃,長臉型,大眼 睛,厚嘴唇,皮膚較白,說話聲音較粗,講漢話,經常穿 綠色軍褲。 (4) xx,女,一九六六年四月十五日生,漢族,山東省日照市 人,北京師範大學心理系八六級研究生,身高一百五十六 公分,圓臉,單眼皮,高顴骨,短髮,皮膚較白 (18) xx , 男,二十歲左右,南京大學學生。身高一百七十四公 分左右,體型中等,方下巴,下牙突出。 Who are they? (The number refers to their ranking in the wanted circular) Zhang zhunyang? =>general secretary, instead of letting Li peng do it 17 main student leader was sent to jail for several years and release on belt study overseas in Harvard teaching in Taiwan not han Chinese Major Student Figure – Wang Dan (1) 王丹 ,男,二十四歲,吉林人,北京大學歷史系學生,身高一百七十三公分左右, 尖下頗,頭髮較稀,門齒有洞齬,體態較瘦,戴近視鏡,北京口音,嗓音沙啞。 10/1/2017 Major Student Figure – Wuer Kaixi (2) Major Student Figure – Chai Ling not having good 吾爾開希 ,男,一九六八年二月十七日生,維吾爾族,新疆維吾爾自治區伊寧縣人, 北京師範大學教育系八八級學生。身高一百七十四公分,留中分頭,頭髮稍黃,長 臉型,大眼睛,厚嘴唇,皮膚較白,說話聲音較粗,講漢話,經常穿綠色軍褲。 Major Student Figure – Li Lu relationship with other two, as she thought they should forgive the gov (4) 柴玲 ,女,一九六六年四月十五日生, 漢族,山東省日照市人,北京師範大學 心理系八六級研究生,身高一百五十六 公分,圓臉,單眼皮,高顴骨,短髮, 皮膚較白 (18) 李錄 , 男,二十歲左右,南京大學學生。 身高一百七十四公分左右,型中等,方下 巴, 下牙突出。 married she got divorced after 64, escape from Chin. gov by yellow bird 18 successful in business firm once work in firm of Buffett Among those who were in the wanted circular, Li seemed to be the most interesting one for he was at one point tipped to be the successor of Warren Buffett 10/1/2017 only him can back China, but media is not allowed to take picture Li Lu was in China together with Warren Buffett and Bill Gates (Sep 2010) 股神巴菲特 His role with the June 4th Incident is not mentioned! Wanted Circular on 14 June 1989 Source: 19 ***martial laws =>say clearly in a time period, people cannot go out =>otherwise, they will be arrested despite that, students ignored that What Happened (50 days of 1989) 16/4 Hu Yaobang’s death result in students mourning in campus 17/4 5,000 Beijing universities students march to TSquare 18/4 100,000 student demonstrators gather in TSquare 19/4 5,000 outside Zhongnanhai sit-in & demand dialogue 21/4 200,000 in T-Square led by autonomous student alliance 22/4 80,000 in T-Square memorial, 3 petition in People’s Hall 24/4 students of Beijing universities declare class boycott 26/4 editorial of People’s Daily coin the incident as “turmoil” trigger nerves of students as the daily representing gov. said their actions make troubles Why did the people go to Tiananmen Square to mourn Hu Yaobang automatically after his death? 10/1/2017 What Happened (50 days of 1989) 27/4 100,000 with citizens/workers take to street against editorial 4/5 100,000 in T-Square May Fourth anniversary demonstration 13/5 3,000 university students hunger strike in T-Square 16/5 Gorbachev’s visit affected, journalists/workers join Tsquare 17/5 over 1,000,000 took to street in support of the students 18/5 student representatives meet Li Peng but talk failed 19/5 Zhao Ziyang visit students, Li declare martial law in Beijing 20/5 150,000 PLA start move into Beijing but blocked by citizens 30/5 students erect Goddess of Liberty in T-Square 3/6 PLA force way to T-Square, shot in Changan Street 4/6 students forced out & T-Square cleared 1) He had always had a very good public image 2) Many people were displeased or even outraged by Hu’s demotion in 1987 3) When the government’s reorganization was proposed in 1988, programs for reform had been cut back on all fronts 4) Others: Some held grievances against previous policies / were against the CCP cut back reforms so as to fight against inflation 20 they want party to reform not asking for party to be kicked out no need to remember all 學生的一些要求 Freedom of speech, democracy and rule of law Freedom of the press / enact publication law Democratic election Increase government’s transparency National Leaders and their family members’ incomes released Increase funding for education and Improve benefits to intellectuals Abolish control of public demonstration in Beijing Modernization of China Increase the speed for economic development Ensure citizens’ rights listed in the constitution Fight corruption Downfall of aristocracy and dictatorship 10/1/2017 description of ‘turmoil;.. April 26 Editorial A great turning point to the whole incident if wording is not that bad, situation can change The publication of the April 26 editorial immediately changed the situation and the confrontation escalated. After April 26 Editorial, students demanded that the whole students’ movement be considered as legitimate Students were angered by the wordings of the editorial such as “anti – party”, “anti – socialist”, and “premediated plot” etc [these wordings had not been heard for long time] Zhao Ziyang (General Secretary) Zhao believed that if the government tried to dredge (疏浚) students’ angers, history might have been changed 21 1954 => deteriorated relationship between soviet union and China as the successor: seemed rectificationist unacceptable for China before he comes to china the tiananmen is occupied by tons of students 10/1/2017 Mikhail Gorbachev, the General Secretary of the Communist Party in the SU, visited China in May 1989, symbolizing the normalization of relationship between the Soviet Union and China When Zhao met Gorbachev, he told Gorbachev that even though Deng was only the Chairman of CMC in the CCP, all important decisions still required the approval of Deng. But this triggered the anger of Deng, who felt that he had been “put to the front” by Zhao said : Zhao betrayed deng At 10pm of 19 May, Li Peng announced the implementation of martial law the next day, and Yang Shangkun (楊尚昆) [President of State] announced the deployment of military troops According to Zhao, he told Gorbachev Deng’s role because he wanted to show to that Deng’s position was legitimate 22 10/1/2017 May 20: Deng decided that Zhao’s position of GS be abolished. Zhao considered that meeting illegitimate for Standing Committee of the Politburo meeting should be held by the GS, but there were only 3 SC members there and Zhao himself was not there That was not based on the Party Constitution = illegitimate The whole event was officially considered as Turmoil after retiring from political position He wants to publish a book but it’s difficult, and disapproved by party then the book is set to publish in HK, but then it said it suffered pressure finally this book is published in Ameraca The clearance of Tiananmen Square was ordered finally by Li Peng The book was supposed to be published in 2004 (in China) but was banned by the Politburo. It was almost published in HK in 2010 but was at the last moment cancelled. Finally it was published in the US and the author is believed to be Li Peng One key point of the book: It was Deng who ordered the clearance of T Square Implication? 23 at that time deng controls CMC , paramount 10/1/2017 once Wang Dan=>suggest a stop & late May=>running out of resources Hk help supply resources before that, Li Peng speech=>anger the students The military using helicopter to request students to leave T-Square on 22 May 1989 (1989年5月22日,軍用直升機在天安 門廣場上空散發傳單,要求學生撤離。) Reuters Tanks were sent in T Square but Deng ordered that no shooting could be done there in the meeting, representatives angered ; li peng avoid questions true that in T square: no one killed but killed elsewhere So all those who died were actually not in T Square How many were killed? many different figure 24 10/1/2017 Yuan Mu: (Spokesman, State Council) No one was killed, no one was hurt! No. of Causality: Different Estimations Li Shiming (Beijing Party Secretary in 1989) • Death: 23 soldiers, 218 civilians (36 of them being students of Peking University) • Wounded: About 7000 (about 5,000 of them being soldiers,2,000 were citizens of Beijing) Beijing Red Cross: About 2,600 killed HK Newspapers Estimation: 3,500 – 8,000 Different Estimations Jiang Zemin (General Secretary 1989 - 2002) A report saying that Jiang once mentioned in the 1996 NPC meeting: 500+ killed; >10,000 wounded, of whom 6,000+ were of the military, armed police and public security personnel Source: 64memo.com Official Data Based on a Report in July 1990 Civilian Killed Civilian Wounded Armed Armed Forces Killed Forces Wounded Beijing 523 11,570+ 45 6,240 Chengdu 277 2,100+ 9 550+ Wuhan 12 170+ N. A. 125 Guiyang 29 290+ N. A. 150+ Haer’bin 7 90+ N. A. 190+ Zhengzhou 6 130+ N. A. 150+ Lanzhou 21 200+ 2 120+ 25 10/1/2017 the deng is believed to order suppression A number of themes by scholars: Deng was behind the scene 1) ...
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