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architecture+of+technology1 - 11-51 Alfred Waterliollsc....

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Unformatted text preview: 11-51 Alfred Waterliollsc. Interior. Town Hall [inspired by the Scaligcr rl‘oznbs iu 1|r'eronaJ et'great tlecoratiye larislmces and sanctimunious ostentation. The :nost impressive ol'all secular works ol'l'he lligh 1dictorian Gothic is Alli-ed ‘rt'aterhouse’s Manchester Town Hall {ldii'F—T'FJ. I1 building equally brillian in its ihiieL‘iu-nal and visual solutions ifigs. 11-5”, 11-51}. The siLc. oi the enormous building was an acute-mtgled bloc]: in the shape of c neor—isoceles triangle. Although Waterhouse oiarlasi Lite main entrance with a tower, the building,r has no facade as each, or not her, is all facade. ani- mated with chimging I'inLhrns, bristling with bay windows, t.u'1'ets, gables, and chimneys, and flTlcl'uElltd with rich, pole- chroniatic corniceworlt and sculpture. Yet the whole structure is unified by continuous lmrizontal levels and core-Fully controlled n'lheaettes and relief. Particularly successful is Lhe. handling of the acute-angled corners, softened by polygonal Jaectinp; and by bay 1e'indo'ars. The interior ofthe building is laid out with a sum- ness that would have gained admiration iu l'aris—t'nc it ssetnEle Hall set almost freestanding in the center, the oiiices filling the three 1stings around it. The circulation arrangements are both effective and imaginative: a corridor runs tu'ound all three sides linking,r the offices, 1.rith spiral stairs at each angle. rJ'lin two stairs near the main r“facade” interpenetrate a secondary eel. cl' stairs Ilanltingthe tintrance to the Great Hall, gene rating Golh ic columnar vistas. Fit its best. the I-lia‘h Victorian Gothic in sweep and 1rision, ii'nc-t in harmony and refinement, could sl most rival the great structures of' the English Middle Ages. In“, musics-nil: {lenlllrt' TIlI'l dRGIIITEGTURE flt‘ 'l‘EL‘flNULUGY i - it is difficult to exaggerate Lhe radical chaos: Lhol the new industrial world of the nineteenth century brought to archi- tectural materials. Since the beginning of architectural his- tory, the same basic substances had been employed. They were provided directly by nature and used in their natural or near- natural state, only cut, shaped, and dried into the functional farms ei' timbers, stone blocks, and clay briclts. The exceptions were lime mortar and Roman concrete. Metals, 1rrhich had the Leneile strength that masonry materials lacked, 1.rcre employed in minor and supplementary ways. Bronze was expensive as well as brittle. Iron, the stritithrall"tr more important. metal, was available in limited quanlit-ies and uneven duality, and was too easily converted to rust by the elements. it was, there- i‘ore, restricted in use to things such as tie rods and chainsJ and, along with bronze, to masonry cramps and decoratitni. Prior to the nineteen Lh century. the structural presence oi'iron in architecture 1eras scarcely noticed. The Industrial Revolution changed all that. Ferrous materials became available in such large quantities that they muld play far more than a minor architectural role. ln 'Ifii'il'l, the world lumine- tion ofiron stood at scenes tons;hy ‘leii'J ii. was 1,3230% tone, and nearly dild'lililfil'li'l in 'lQi'lITJ—almost a lifty-‘l'hld increase oynr the century. The growth T.Iras not only in Quantity, but quality as well. Iron, Found hountiiillly in the earth’s coast as an oxide, is a material of' almost pmtean variability. It is not simply pure or impure. but can he made hard or soft, brittle or duel ile, strong or weak. These qualities depend on carbon content, Freedom From impurities {slag}, and heating and coolingr treatments of the refined metal. 'Il‘raditionally1 three yer-sinus existed; cast ironJ wrought iron. and steel. Cast iron is the. crud est lei-n1, cnnlaining the most impurities and thus extremely brittle. Wrought iron, because it includes almost no carbon, is highly malleable [hence its name}, but also comparatively soft. The optimum material is steel. which inesrporatcss Jestrictcd amount ofearhon for hard- ness but is atlas-wise line of impurities, git-log great. strength and. as a result of' tcnnierins: treatments, is also malleable. last and wrought iron came into prodigious manufacture in the early and rnid-nincttmnth tamtury as a result of rapid grin-rth in demand. new means to transport materials, and more eiIIicient iron-l'ilundim,r techniques. But the mass pro- duction of steel required further toehnoltsrical advances to rid the metal of weakening impurities and to control more per- l'ectly the [legit-lie. of earburiaation. Such adt'ancas 1were made with the Bessemer pierces Finn into use in lliiill} and the open- hearth prticess oi" lfifiat', scientific iron metallurgyr in the last third of' the century perfected these iecl'inioues. A significant but little-known that is that the main Form of increased ate rl production was technically not steel but a ltind of wrought iron. ll lacked a crucial property oi" true steel— its hardening power—yet it tlil'l'ererl ll‘t‘rt‘l‘l the. older forms of wrought iron because it was iron from the n-‘calecninp,r presence oi'slag, at Lhe same time heng malleable [unlike tats: ironl. It was called steel only because the name carried the status ofa high-quality and high-priced pmduct. illustratinp,r once again how EJ-Utt'asive the habits observed in architecture were in the nineleenlh-otstiury mentality. instead oi' inventing a new name for a l'undauientai newr product, a historical name {hence a historical image associated in the. public mind with superi- ority} was misappropriated for it. 4-13 That the user structural materials were tuuched by nine- teenth-century mental hehits is also seen in the alternative new b1.|_ilrline,r substance—minerals ctenpesctl at an aggregate et' bre- lten stnne, gravel. nrnther small elmqu ni' 1‘54er matter embed- ded in a matrix of limit. sand. and water. in use since Human times, its Inc-darn revival dalmnried en the hit-entice nt' Perth-1nd IClement in 1824, a substance at man].- thnes greater strength, durability, and tire-resistantss than the age-nit! lime cement. Mess cencrete began tn came intn widespread use in the It'lfills and shades, in the censtnlctien nFthe sewers el' liar-is, Ibr exam— ple. Hen-ever. even with T’nrtland Cement, the use :11" cancrete was still sevendy restricted by its Jew tensile s1'_renif_=,rtli1 but the remedy was at hand in the newly avei lable iron and slat-l.- their preperties eemplemented these at canciete. "Whereas the hitter material was cheap, easily melded inte large structural ibrms with great cempressive but little tensile. strength, iren and steel were expensive. dit'licult tn shape. yet ends-wed with extreme lensile strenth and easily premirahie in the simple tht'm ni'lnng. thin bars. Furthermere, whereas imn rusted and. was flit-5534de tn Failure in face, cnncrcte was beth fire- snd weather-resistant. ri‘he snlutinn was nnether typitsil nineteenth-century synthesis nl” opposites—an “ideal” structural material, ferrncnnerete, in which iren bars (steel in its. simplest, cheapest lei-inl- were embedded in ennui-etc at iLs weak paint in make up ibr its niiss- ingtensile strength, while the cancrete, tsinversel}: protruded the irnn elements from fire and rusting (fig. "-521. Concrete rein- tiirced by iren was adaptable nut enly tn the nbviens use ni' lUIJH beams, but alas esnld i'erm cnlumns, walls. arches, and vaults. all ni' surprising thinness. strtaia‘th. and virtually unlimited shape. in the case el‘east iren, it is set an eseggeratien tn say that the earlynjneteenth taint-ury Hell in let-e with the substance [tailievetl {led-eaves, being an useful and plenti I‘uli- and used it an every- thing,- imaginable. Bridges, censnrvaeiries, factories. ccmmcrcial lI-EE Beams {Ir retllt'nl'rfh’l IIItL-EUJLFJ'. reinE'erretl concrete, tliltl prestrcssed cent: rule: a. Pepe, Ifill L; b. 'fl-‘illtinstm, i854 patent; r. Henncliique, M33? [Jute-Ill: Ii, e, f. marl-er" rchll'nreud cenerete-t it. mmlern prcslressed cents-eta. (After Malllfilunu] 4-H buildings, fllfll'hltL-H. museums, churches. and libraries in which test teen was used [alien in cembinaLiern with glass nut-.- “Vall- able in unlimited quantities] preliferatetl in the first hail' nj‘tha century and flourished an richlyr in the middle decades tn abeut ETD—SO that the pet-ind has been called the l[last lnin Age (figs. 1133— 11 Till. a tier it was dismvered that the exposed irnn members typical ul' cast-inI-n architectu re were highly suscepti- ble tn the ravages ul” fire. a prelific phase ci'wnstructinn with stetd,ne1viirenrenl‘+ai. lblleu-‘ed Fr'em list-ill inte the twentieth et-in— tury. The steel structures Limit the term efgergant-uan engineer- ing wet-its and impatient. skyscrapers in Chicagu and New ‘i’nrh. Fermenncrete was the East rantlel'ial te appear Iiilt the lflgflsl and the East to afich architecture. as it became the Iflurepean I'rl'edernist stmcttn'al mans-iel pareseellcncc (figs. 12-58, lit-T8}. New I'ltlel lends: Engineering and Materials. Eefere the nineteenth century, structural lbr'ces were understand only in apprenti- mate empirical terms. it was nnt until the late eighteenth cen- tury that exact hnnwltslue began tn replace ,‘LfllEfiSWUTk, and structural assign was first put an a scientific basis. (July in the later nineteenth century did the science of statics—an aspect nf' physics ultimately dependent nu hie-«tent: Laws at Metien— finally became architecturally viable. The invented techniques depended (In abstract precndnres in 1.vhich structural campe- nente represented calculable lbrces that could be measured precisely and directed thrnugh structural devices—arches, slabs, beams, piers, trusses—as Llirnugh a complex. plumbing fih'fitfim- SUP-h a methnd was intrinsic tn the emplnyrnent- effer- rnus skeletal eenstruetien, wh ieh was the main term nl'techni- {rally advanced werh in Lhe pet-ital. The new metth of structural design were created and put inie practice. by members til' a, new platf'essfnn, that at the civil engineer. l-lelhre the etehteeath century. Ln he an "engineer: rnnam. tn he a builder nt' “engines” ni' warfare, a master of its mechanical and cnnstrnctienal arts twhich includetl read and bridge l'ntilttirlg as vrell as weapuuryl. in the great upsurge. as" public tracks—canals, harbnrs1 decks, lighthnuses—during the eighteenth-century Enliainenmerit, and the eutpnuring at" can- stmetive and mechanical activity in the Industrial lteenlutinn, the men whn applied tn civilian metals the arts that had previ- eusly been the rlnrnain er" the military engineer set themselves apart. adapting; the name "civil" ii.e.. civilian i engineer ihr their nastier. In this Fast gen-ins preliissinri. structural expertise. was retrieved i‘rnm the tlemain cf the art-hileet where i1: bad ate-spa been. Earlier. cunt- ef the grea1 amlii1ecla had dealt with struc- Lure as an integral pa-it nfthc design. lhal. in the Herb and Iattn' 1'Ill1EitEt-Zt1tl'l [IL-Hint}; it“: must S13I1-I2L'1Li1ilar tlrlt't-inur-s in structure were HIE-Hit! l1]? i-l'll'lti'vt-‘t whu understand the rapidly l-‘h."l'll]‘r'i'|'lil_:']1|fllt"..' sni- ertce stdliciently tn wet-l: creatively within iL—the Iii-riftgssjnii;_l civil engineers. These were fig-.u-es such as the Ittieiaiincs. whn built the Hnenltlyn Bridge; Gustave l'litlbl, vclusse spectacular irnn railway bridges develuped pylens that culminated it: the Eiffel 'l'en'er', anti William Le Eaten rlt.-nnt.-y. wile created the steel- I'J'anied skyscraper in Chicane all ei'whun: were prndncts nine-iv teclmeleaical sclinnls. Many at their structures. saw-easily pure i.rru,,-i1'ieei'iner wurlts such as the Ei‘jel 'l'nivur, slinclted and hevril- {Iered the mere aesthetically sensitive nl'thr— cnntetnpniviry audi- ence talthuuarh the masses levcd them]. The typical ernnneer's tacit at training in the visual traditiens ut' architecture predis- pused him callnnsly 1n disregard niceties nl'scale. brnpnrtinn. and THE MODERN Will-{LU detail. and the adaptation cf raw structures to human sensibili- ties. Yea one must. net magrdfy the dichotontyhetween engineers and architects. Just as certain engineers were able successfully to deal with architectural form, so a number of gifizetl nineteenth- century.r architects assimilated structural advances and architec- turally exploited their potential. These figures—cutstantiing among them the Fienchn‘tan Henri Lahreuste—were prtssursers cf the islndernist builders whe exercised dazzling talents in employing i‘ully the neur architectural techneingy. rl'he new methods depended net only an new architects anti engineers, hut en the revolutienary qualities ef' the new mate rials. 1With the qualified exceptien el' Reman cencrece. it can he said at" Timintiuetria] materials that they were extracted l'rtnn the earth, niade inte pieces. and heaped up in piles. Energy and imagin ation flawed inte the aesthetic shaping el' these heaps ct' tnatter, achieved thrnugh nrepertiun, articulatien, and elahera- tien; particular emphasis was directed tn the lead-suppert. er tectonic relatienships between the individual piled-up pieces. What resulted were the varied [iirn'ts ni' hases. shalis. capitals. architrayes, cni‘nices. impcst lilcclts, keystnnes. rihs. that is. the cempunents ui' lead and sumsirt. Except ['er the tensile forces centained in the lewer strata rii' lintels. the stresses involved were essentiallyr cen'un'essive tines, whether in pyra- tnitis, walls, traheated frames. tn' arches and vaults. The new intlustri al materials are cnnspicunusl}r ditierent. First, eeery industrial material is at a unjliirrn anti determinate quality, semething rare in traditienaJ materials. Stuns varies unpredictahly between quarries and even within the salnc quarry Frtnn hed ta lied. 1with grain and vein structures assuming all the variety nt'natune, nc tth tile-cits. in l'act, heing the sales. 'Tinilier varies similarly l'rnni tree in tree. and bricks. especially in early uretiuctien. lr'nm hatch te inttch. But a given grade at industrial steel is at predictable unitilrniit-y. a l'eatu:'c crucial tu engintawing calculatinns. Further. all the newr materials are. dis- tinguished lily a much greater tensile strength that ticrruitlce FL radical new thinness te any cennicnent ei'astructure, as well as altewing a greater scale the any such structural whale. Such tensile strength is asseciated 1with anether aspect. cf" the. new susstances. Whereas elder materials were shaped by a cutting actien inte small units, the structural terms at the new materials are created from incl-teats. liquid masses that are Injured. melded. extruded. er heateu intc ale-est limitless shapes. in the case. ei'icrrecencl'ete, an cutti lluiltiiug can lit- erally he east a single. 1nc-nelithic unit. in irun and steel—Frame structures. the individual altsnhte's. rather than receiving chc Feehle Inertar bend ei'tratiitienal censtructiuu. are perrllittctl by their high tensile strength to he so lirme and cempletely liclted, riveted. er welded tinge Liner as tn li_;-rni a structural unity, as time- tienully seamless and integral as the tnennlithic ferrecnncrctc ceunterpart iiigs. til-531i. 11-5-1]. Nu matter which modern tech- nique is employed, the resulting integrated building ceultl net be more different from the leescly ad licritlg piles III' small, dis- crete elements «at ttatiitienat practice. The final eLintI'nst. between the chi and new matcriaJs cencerns their visual surface qualities. Here we find modern materials at a disadvantage, at least ir1it.inl.y. By and large. traditional substances were citeEien net-only I'er their structural preperties, but because of their acsthctic qualities, the visual richness pre- videtl by their cuter, texture. and pattern. Precisely cut ashlar ijmasiune Lilac-ks; enitinins rind corniccs {if glewtng, polished The: Nineteenth iii-.tll'llry marble: piers ei'weathered traverline'. and sunlit brick arches were all of' high intrinsic appeal. But I'eW materials are visu— ally deader than inun. tlnncrete is no hetter. being equally dull I I 53 Nineteenth-century cast-iron building structure liaing‘ ttemulislieu in 1334. New Yurlt 11-5-1 James Hugwdus. Fat-lune design shun-wins; tenuous strength at east irnn even Iwith parts at structure missing. 1356. (After Girlllultj 4-1-5 man-Hua- _ “mm —.m..—.. compared to traditional masonry. The monotony and lifeless- ness of modern materials are inherent in the very uniformity that makes them such perfect structural media. TF we pull together these observations about the new sub- stances with a view to their larger architectural implications, we find rnuseb'es contracting the problem that i'aecd the archi- LeeLs oi the lodust‘rial Age: the ILireel-t-tleriyed formal system that had been the he sis of all 1|Firesteni architecture was inval- idated by the new materials. The old architectonic system deyeieped to articulate lead and support had no real meaning it. the new integral equilibrium of seamless parts. Such differ- entiatinn was foreign tn structures at irrirtI rat-eel1 and lerrncun- crete. Mereocer, the thinness el” the net-.- etrue1.uree_.permitte{l by The strength nfthe new :un1eriels: was inimical tn the sculp- t.t|:|'al detailing erl.r'r={li1..im1'.el lhrrns rJl' articulatien. Details cre- ated fer limestone and marble. and even liar brick and “fund: lead I.“ he drained elit'itnlity in irun rJr crmerehzl. The incalidatinn by the new industrial :I'I:1t-'Ill'+1'lt-'Il!"-i nithe histnric fer-rue efWeetern emhheeture preeuppceee the idea that Farm and structure should fbllcw the dictates ul‘ the nature el" mmeriele cntpluyetl. This thesis—which gees hack to the eighteenth-ten- tury thrmr'tet lndali—wae to become a muchetcue el‘ erchneetu rel Modernism: l‘IuL in the nineteenth mentuijrr Lhe imaginative leap tn .1 new tectonic eyetem was impueethle Ihr emhileete to make: the gap between the aid familiar ways and the strange new male- r'tale was simply tee great to erase. However, the Feet that archi- tects could act sample-rely surrender tr.- the new techuulegy rim-15 nut nu-iau that they (lid not respond to it. Quite the ccntr-ei-y. El‘ew. ifauy, creme-d tn he lel'Lhehirul. In Fact , iL iejtiel. I.l'It-' urtpreriictahle variations eftheir res-grunge that make riineieenth—uentuq' archi- 1ectm‘al hiatnry as rich and euiwnluteti—a Hiflea—teainn nf'talenterl. well-meaning figures struggling imaginatively with Fart-es that they euly vaguely tnntpreherided. Marlee ul'nglI-T'ecttuulogy Architecture. .-'H.-'ineteeuth-rentitry er— chitects acccutnulrlated the new techuulngy in three hes-in: math-a: 1. simple euhetitutinu ermuteriale while leaving t'nrme essentially intact: 2. marl i llt!:-ll.'lfllt nlfi nlrler farms while exploit— ing the gmater stu-angth ul‘the new euhetencee: and :‘i. creetinn at" essentially new structural fin-me altogether. F["l'iue, e Cerinlhian column could simply be cruct in iren; i1. could he Inuch atlan— ated to exploit the ircu'e strength; or a completely new Farm at” iron pier could taltc its place. The. first made, eulsdjtutiun. was: part [culerly papalnr i n the Cast-Iron Age because materials that are pout-ct], melded, nr pressed into thrnt sen-i: netuuly the creation cl‘integral struc- tures but also the process of mass production. in ll'llri that: the manufacture of ainltitectural compliments. The temptatinu LtJ duplicate traditional architectural ibrms in cast iron was irre- sistible Hm. 11-54, 11-?3]. ' 'l'he latent conflict that such a process involved: however, was dramatized in the second case—the distortion of l.l'Ei{lll.itrf'l-€-Il forms to exploit the new strength of materials. It is installing ts compare the attenuated cast-iron columns of nineteenth- centery interiors lfig. ll—‘Tfil with the visually similar attenuat- t-ien oi'supperls Lu the Gothic period. in the medieval lit-danceE a meaningful illusion of weightlessness was achieved. But every- one understood that iron was so strong that. even the thinnest iren columns were physically capohle of hearing immense weight. [Jematerielizatien was thus obviated, or,I if realize-dE 44E only to the extent that the observer was led to forget that the supports were iron and not masonry. But since the cast-iron IGothic churches of the end-century were objects of hitter criti- cism, such suspension oi'disbeliei‘ 1would have been difficult. The role of architect as a l-Lirid of stmctural magician was for the moment lost and would only be regained when antitoctenie sor- cery could be efl'ectircly applied. to the inherent powers ei'thc new materials. In any case, the comprmnise of adapting old forms to new materials was an uneasy one. full of the conflict and ambiguity characteristic of the. period. The third categery. the creation of' new forms, is particularly complex. New sit-natures could appear either as pere engineering terms twhich needs no explanation here). as selllcensciuus Fer- Jnalist inventiuns [a Modernist ttlpiel, m- in eclectic numbinetinne with historical styles {the most interesting and valied ninc— teenth-centm'y mode]. To mime of these cembinations. a new structure could be entirely hidden from view. The best illustra- tiun is I‘uurlrl nut in a strictly architectural wurlc hut in the great.- est. sculptu'lal menumtc'lt ef' the periodJ the Status of Liberty. mmple1ed in lfiafi. in New ‘r'urlc Elm-hm- (figs. 11-55, ]l-5fijl.']h the arrival-ten the mnnttrnant,1 same 31]!) lifel in height, Ina-seats. neth- ing unusual apart from the scale eml the site: an eclectic granite pfltlt'fit—til surmounted by a Neoclassical colossus Fabricated of hammered copper. Completer hidden within is the ext-reenli- nary stmettiral pregraru that supports the visible forms. The Faundetien hliail-t cunetitmee the largest t'JCITit'r't-‘LE! Tunas. cl'ite day. The mincrete cure at the pedestal walls is. reinlhrcr-‘d hy lei-rune elerrteule that are run slung theI inner surface in the Ibrrn ui' heavy iren straps bolted to massive cross-yekes of steel girders a nehored in the masonry at the top and bottom. But the armature oi" the statue itselF—crmnected by huge belts to the abrn-‘e-men- tinned err.1ss-g__."irders—is the most remarkable ef'the monuments 11-5." Statueud'Litnwlty1 crass aerflen. 131’5- 35. fewer 5t. I-lurace l l-fifi Gust-aye EiITeI. Htat ua ul' Liberty, elect armature. "Fiche. rlng} “fill—54 TIIE Elr'IflIlI-IHN WUIELI] supports, and well it should be, Jiir it was designed by the practit- ltnntl French engineer of the period. Gustave Eiffel lijttiself. ’11": core ofbis wrought-iron ell-rut:th u {almr'ing pyitnl of "massive angle-girders cross-laced into a rigid unit, from which secsnnlnry, much lighter trussworlrt reaches toward the interior sliin ol' the statue. The actual connection to 1i1e shirt is clieeted by a sysuuu of flexible, springlil-tc iron he cs lleL fllll'i'W' for thermal expnnsi on of the statue), while a powerliil, cantilevered been: rises In carry tlu: asymmetrian lead ell-he Larch are]. rl'lle reps-er shell el'l'rédet'ic ilruguste Bardioldi’s statue is entirely hung I'ttltli this Itlultilny- ered skeleton, lilte a modern curtain wall, lacing nowhere self- suppcrrting at only :3. 5 mflihneters in thickness. Hidden structure, such as that of the Statue of Liberty, was used extensively in nineteenth-century ru'chitecture, hut ne-.'I.r structural forms were also openly set side-by-side with Lrndi- tienal fabric. The railway stations ofthc period were the most widespread examples of such combinations. The passenger terminal nsuall}r tool: lzistericizing form, but the train shed was built in the purist engineering manner of the fire-hreatliing machines thatinhahited it (fig. 11-55]. The nimt progressive scheme geiterally used in the period was the combination of new and traditional structure an the same unit a masonry shell with a visible internal structure entirely or partly efiron. This mode was employed in a variety of net:r building types, including early factories, commercial hnildings, markets, galJeries, and stores. It 1iyas used by the architect l-Ienri labronste in his mat library building in Paris. the Bibliothetfue Ste-Genevieve, probably the finest work of the mid-century; and it was a medium through which the most fons'ard-loolting and influential architectural thinker of the period. Violletrle-Duc, depicted a way to the future Lfig.__12 3;. High-flis'ilnolugy [kins-tnlct'ians. He iron. flrfd'ge. Before the era of iron. stone reigned supreme in bridge construction. Des-'eleped by the. Romans in innumerable ricer spans and aqueduct-s. the form 11-5? PIJJILL.‘ Santa 'l‘riniut. Florence. “Eli? l l-EH .lenll-Iimitrljrim I'errntiel. Heine: River Ii-riiige. erliily. 1TH. {Engraving it]: .I. F. Get-11min. Bihiior‘ne one Nationals!) endured into the modm-n period. Although its four mostituent el- L1|E|tlr1L-tp'«—p'll.:'l'!-j1 Eire-lies, filmitlrelfi, and Itlzitllied—remained un- changed, a number nl'signiticant modifications were realized by later builders for reasons ol'stal‘riliLy, economy, utility, and some- times aesthetics. in the Middle Ages, for instance. at the l-‘ente "y'ecchio in Florence [1345]. flattened, segmental arches were sub- stituted for the itomao full semicircular arches, 1.titli the obvious advantages I'll-El. grunrtttr strain ‘lil l‘leigliL ri'ilin, pertltitling t-l'. flatter roodbed in eonjuoeti on with [ewer arehes over the bridge length. it was characteristic ol'tbe Renaissruice vis nail} to refine this tea- ture in the adiacent Florentine bridge of 1135”, the l-‘onte Santa 'l‘rinita fig. 11- 57}, where the arches fella-tired a sinuous, elliptical curvattu'e. But the perfection of the arched stone bridge nicely aesthetically as well as structurally was attained in the period of early civil engineering, tire late eighteenth century. ln 1'? TE, dear. Rodolphe i-‘erronet i director ofthe first civil engineer ing school, the Ecole des Ponts et Cltaussees‘l built his fantous bridge over the Seine River at Neuilly (fig. 11-55 E, a structure that despite its traditional materials and format clearlyr manifested the rising nenr technical spirit. Because of the set-'eral years The Nineteenth Century 44'? | l-fifl Abruluuil Derby. Severn River Bridge. L'oalliroolnialr. lfingluml. I'i‘i'il'. (Hcieuee Museum. London) rer.1'.1ire.d to build a inultiarched bridge, it had beer. neces- sary since Roman times to construct each areb as a sell- supoorlruog unit, that is, with piers thick enough to support the arches oft'ao incomplete bridge du'ough the winter nlorlt lis. Per- ronet realized that when the bridge was eootpiem :he Lhielmess ol' the piers 1was superfluous because the thrust, rather than baring to be resolved in each pier, could be treetsferred from eier Lo pie:- to the iiverbanlts. The piem could thus be made 1hinner wiLl'to'.11. any loss in stability, indeed, with a gain in the factors ofendura not; for the bridge 1rronld present less oi‘a blockage tn the river llnw. Before Perronet. the minimal ratio of pier thickness to spun hail been around 1 to C1; in his bridge, wi1J1 its lEll—lan-spans between piers only 1:] foot thicle it my. l to 1-3. There was out: mien. lion-- eye-r; all the arches had to be erected to a single year. 'l‘b was ae- complislied with getterous state patronage, which permitted at one ti the a crew “For many as We more and lti'r' horses. Porronet's cementum-arias doubted the 1.-'iabi_li‘.._T.r or" his niacin-sr concept, but the bridge snwieed until liltit'r. when itwas wantonly dismantled. .iust at. the. moment when Perronct lxi'tmgln the arched stone bridge in inflection. an irresistible nonmetinre force made its first appearance: the arched bridge of iron. It is no coincidence that. several el‘ ils potential advantages had been sought by F'ernlne1.—Hiiiriilrni-'. utility. and scale. Even in his reformulation, l.l'l[‘. stone arches remained Insult-irons in dead weight and thrust, riai-essilstiny; piers tbat were still immense eornpored to most construction. l{illnly with iron could any significant gaiiE he achieved. Whereas the compressive strength of limestone is EU mas '|..|l‘.l' sinners flint, !.h.'-‘|l I'illiillllilhl'l- iron is It") tons per square inch [or T2 Limos I‘nnr't-ill. This elevaled nonprofit-titre shtingth of cast iron is by For ila gitsiltat virtue, being Ihnr times. its tensile strength. Pitches i-ir'i! entirely a matter Ilrttiirlllla'PHE-iiw-‘i litres, and thus :he obvious way to exploit t'asli into ll": :1 bridge. was to substitute iron roost-Soils for these. tlrsttine. Fin great was this comparative advan- tage that its uliill'nt:it:l'is1.it: cianal appearance was realised in one of the first iron bridges, the one over the Severn River trig. 11-59] at {ioalbrookdaiis England, [HrrlllilE-EI-El'i in l Til-1 by Abraham Darby, a member at tin: prominent English pioneering irnn—I'hund'ing family. Here the old I'll-E1Hfil‘r't! anhslance of bridges has melted away. The li‘r'e sets oi'oainfl [Ell-ili—ll'lili'l r'iiia. each Til feet long. sit-em but the. skeletal ghost linJi'lflg't—lfi past. wilil quirky. eighteenth- century forms that include Gothic Rayival tlfjet-i arches. 44-3 I o— 'ii'l‘Jt":_-{,i'I2il;Ill:Jri:I(Jl-tt,lt‘1lt:_Hrlfl.g’t_: was Llit; tnnhrlyunic phase or iron bridge construction. a decisive advance was to lubricate arches not Incrcly of two attenuated. comparatively 'lil]::1.-tll:.IlI:-J. skeletal units, but of a great many total-iron youssoins (like a typical stone. ul'clll. Easily founded and extremely rigid. such a bridge could be. built to cast dimensions. This concept was [itst pro— motel ill “33 by the American itlyontor'l'lloiluts Paine; in 18th.. the future English bridge huildor' Thomas 'l‘ellhrd pnqpusetl a colossul new London bridge oi'such a structure (lie. ll-Ei [1.1. a sin- ch arch leaping drill} feel across the Thames ltirer. with a rise ol' onbr [55 feet. This visionary project. although probably techni- cally uoatluinable at the time. was based on the success ol'|.he :"tunous Sunderland Bridge oI' lTflIi—QG. a stunning. ESE-loot real- ization or | ‘oilltrs stone-inio-ir'on rouse-oir uolion. a sober. clear- headed advance beyond thi; primitive Severn structure. Although many such scans were erected in the early nine- teenth century. the. solution was a transitional one, I'or ll. exploited only the eontpressioe er'enat h ofir'on, and nothing of the. Lonai le strength that even cast iron was endowed with. not to mention the increasineg available wrought iron. Moreover, bridge derelonmcut was accelerated by the sudden need for rest numbers at new spans with tht: coming uI' the railroad after lbiiill, whose iJ'Leltilles’ heel was the: intihil its to climb any but the slightest grades, omtessi'. atins,r the construction ol'i “nu- nlei'nhlt: tunnels and bridges in modern parallel to the Jot-omen aqueduct system with its slight. even. tinirrott-‘orti incline}. ln England alone, the ntn‘nbts' ni' bridges I'He'il‘: Ii'tlnl LiUJJiJi} in 1333 to EU,UUU 111. li’il'itl [mostly for the rails-ray; lint not only ntnit- bocs were involved. No earlier ht'itintEs had to nuctlntrnndalc the enormous weight and the kinetic shocks ol' the rapidly iueu-.-iii;.,r train; and for ' earlier bridges. had to cross such valleys, rivers, and wateris'ays as was commonly required eFthe rai sty bridge The inventiveness of bridge builders owls channeled into realiz- ing the most efficient and expansive explanation of ion-qu. materials, in both their tensile and compressive sLi-engclis. This resulted in not only the reformulation oi‘the arched bridge, but also the inycntion. or reinvention, oi'other ['ornts. the girder, the truss, the cantilever. and the suspension bridge. The simplest ou'iulojmiout of the double strength oJ'irozi was the girder. Even a castrin'rn girder could withstand high '(‘flljllfl stresses. thereby permittng fcu' longer spans than some Jitateis. TH E .‘i'IflDEl-l hi “TI [ELI] ll-iiti Themes Telfelsl. Thames River |I]'li;il'!l‘l. Lemlen. Iii-Iii. {iieienee Museum, Lenrleuj Hundreds, even theusands. ef simple eastiren bridges, 29 feet tn tifl' feet inns, 1were built in the nineteenth century using sueh beams. Given the cerrect tress seetien and sutlieient depth, selid ima girders fli'temi‘mnus length uuuld Iris-1i lint: liilrrhsihsl, an R1 rhur'L Stephensen erered in ldiif} in his themes tubular Britannia Bridge {Ills}. 11-613 01' pair til-railway hridges t‘anL'i' 1hr: Menei Strait {an arm ef the irish Flea}, constructed 1with. a system ei" "shnrterxi beams 23D feet in length and lenger nnes twice that. More efficient, and with far mere untentiai than either the simple Lren girder er TJie reusseired east iren arch, was the truss. a structural ferre that was in rims-e enteng the meet LLh-ie- uiteus nfaii in niedern engineering tile. 11 622'. Knewn in the her tn the Remans and thereafter tn ail reef and bridge huildersI the truss is based en the unique indefermabiiit]; efthe triangle. Under lead, its eem‘eenents may eventually break, but the tri angular figure itself-will net ethe'n'rise distert- tunlilte a rectan- gle nr any ether shape). A. truss is a strueture built up at twe er mere triangles . sharing side s. The simplest ef truss forms is the sn-ealled king pest eftwe right angled triangles 1with a eemnien 1r'ert-ieal side {u sed widely in reef stnteturesi. In a truss, depend- ing en the direetien of leading. serne members are subjected tn enniliressive stressJ ethers te tensile enes. It' the trees is inserted. snare must efthe stresses. The king-pest fermnle is so simple that the were truss was generally net applied In it. being reserved fer lenger ehains ef triangles, heghmntg 1with the se- eslled multiple king-pest type I'lrnewn tn Gethie builders and Psllsdiei. As such. a truss 'if Further extended fonts a kind ef girder, sud may even he theught el'as s :sulid girder with the unnersesssrltr [int-ts rim-Insect. Theseus. can easily be: fiatu'ien‘tm'l tn fer greeter depth end enrrespnndingly lnnger- epene then gird- Ers, wiLh less expense and Leel'inienl diilieulty. 'i‘he erlventsge fifths. truss is eempelling, and what seemed an alt-rinst limitless variety nl' Inn-5s: i'nr'rriulse spEJ-asreri in the merge el‘Lhe century in testis-IE,- the growing need iirr bridges ei'ineress- ing span and heighL es the railway system expended thruugliuut the werld. "inward mid-eentury, the methemeLieel, enialytieel hasis ef tress design, that is. true :nedern truss engineering, heme inte lining; and the feet that the truss eenld he applied tn pramiealljr every ether strueturel element sf bridges as well, inelndin;r tnwers end even erehee, inereesed its use. rl‘he first engineer in utilise fully this [intentia] was the brilliant. figure we The Iineteenth Century have eneemitered heihre, Gustave Eiffel. in a series nt'magnii'i eenL wrnueht-iren railway hridges nserdeep river valleys, Eiifel neriiz-eted a system Lha-L eemhined seidery trusswerk njriens [Inmiels I'Irr Lilli! tittittnr cil' liililerln.r unnatural. emseenia-sltnpcd trusswerh arehes -: hinged el. Lheieints Fer Ll‘il'tl‘n'll’ifi_‘y':l'l.flll'lifl flexi- iiilihr and design ereeisinn}, and inng. eeatinunus trusswnrh girders. The finest realizatien el'Eii'l'el’s system 1eras his Gambit 1I-I'ie.d1.:r:t the. 11 tiBI in. snuthern France [1381] 85-3, with its para iI-fil Rulllll'l.5[l!,!|:|l'l ensue. Hrilnunla Bridge. fli'lelnrJ SlriLil. [ti-I11} ll-tiE “ridge trusses rit' The firs-i1" half‘nl' the. lflth century. it. Burr, lSfl-‘i-g 1:. Tewn, 1321]: e. Hut-re, 1341; d. Pratt, lS-‘i-‘l; e. Whipple, 131th; ’r'. Warren. Iii-Hi. {Filter t'rininslune) 4-19 ll—fi3 Gustave Eiffel. Garalilt 1l-‘iailnrt. Frame. man—as hoLic amh rising ERI lost river a 54 ] vi'oot span [With truss woris t'oo't. doop at the cam-n 3', its total length l_'r' in feet, and tho whole as author ofouinLcsson 'Li ally French economy and visual elegant-a. Ntwort-hcloss, lilifl'cl‘s lin'ltlula was not tlu-L ultimate realization ot'Lho potential at the truss. Another variant, almost always of' ungainly visual apnoaruum, hut nl‘sl mag structural advantago, was the cantilever. Ultimately ornament Chinese origin. the can- tilever consists ol'a lnrnin pnijsclnd from a summing towor with u countol'halmluinn imam hshind it, joining up with a similar truntiltn'orocl unit promoting synuurtrically From the opposite show. There can, ni'mm'sc. he more than two such cruitllox-crotl units in a hridsoI and flair span can he land oolnlnonly isl cottondocl by ha.n_n_1:ini.-,r a sumrisuu—nflary girder between tho I;th cant-flowered arms. Tiu: r‘misricnn and German engine.st who pimool‘od the inn-:smi carIt-ilnvrl' in' tho latitls. sax-enlists. anti uighrics quickly realised that lithe bridge towers are treated not as discrete suppm‘ifi on which the other tr'nssworlc is ruins-on hung uticlitiVE-lj' [as in Eillulll but are conceived in an integral manner, tho Whole umliltwsi'sd unit. int:ludinf._r tits towsrs1 becomes a single truss nl' putan Lially tremendous. depth [that ol' l-l'IIJ towor height] and corresponding length and strength. The dofmiiive nxinnpls of this sonoopt was an awesomo TIIUElUn‘i construction —Ll'.-t: Fat-Ll] fli'itige (fig: 11—511] in, fientland‘ built in 1832 89 0:1 thl': design Lil-“iir Benjamin Balcsr, who wss knighted For his achienn‘nent. 'l‘hq;l main part of the Forth 11164 Sir Benjamin Halter. Forth Bridge. Scotland mas—so Bridgl: consist-1- or three garganhian cantilevered units, each cantiltn'nr arm pmiect—Iug ESE} foot from Lowers flit Feet high, the who'll! h'r'irlga SHE-I) that long, woighmg sonic. 33,0013 tons. Lila: many af‘tho visionary engineering works ol' the poi-incl, it met with an instant poinllnr Fania which was diluted only Li}.- isolated tlrins From the aesthetic matablisimtent ironically:l one of tho iht'eliliht-trs nl‘Mndsrnism: 'WiiLiam I'l'IIm'risF seems,- Lo have lliiltll'] it mos-L rlsnlsring that ‘ovcry improvmnont in machinst [was] tlgl iE-tr and uglier until they reached the anon-oinost spec- ituon of all ugl insss, tho Forth Bridge.“ The ninntnansh-nsntury sys had no such prohicms with the suspension bridge, +1 lihrrn aminwetl with great 1iris—Loni compre- honsihility and hoauty in“ line. In the definitive example, the Brooklyn Bridge Ilia. 1 1-2), the main structural forces—unlike the visually unlismglmi structural pattern of the Forth span.— ars dramatically dividier listwssn massch stone towers. all clsnso compression, a ml the. spider}: stool cahlos, wlioso tonsils i'oroes draw thtnn out in In sr total-rod cars-'os, rays, and ltorpliltc pJumh-liuos To (insists. the Hnspe—lnsinn hridgc’s third element adds its 1:isionary magic—tho. nmdhad that soars in a single, gliding curve I‘mnt shunt-i to shore. expressing noithei' transit:I nor compression iin'nn: hut simply floating: in midsir. It is this dramatic inlnrnlay ol‘ er-uciurai modes and swooping 1r'isual lines, all roitdnr'mi [in :-i heroic sum-ifsJ that masz the misprin- sion hridgtr so manta-ill ing. interestingly, unliltlr nLl‘H-tl' ninnlnenth-oantuD' bridge forumI the suspension hr-idin-i chant-14:! little. in its basic canto-11's throughout its {ltHI'II'llUpnlL-"llll. which begins with Thlf'ord's sau— foot bridge of lHEti Ht't—lr' lint-l Merlin Strait. and by tltf.I “liti- tWC‘fltiE-ti] cantiler r'iotttln-ie-i tilt-i Ii._2C||;]-fiiot Golden Gate liridgo in San l'irnnciiiurl E937], and IlJH competitive, filminfom lllu'bl‘fflgunu_ Narrows Bridge [lFJfiiiII in Haw York. The Limoltlyn Britign was I.h+-. greasest of' ninetoonth-ocntmy bridges. its loan [Jinnah-c imynrul its tiradeqmssnrs was not just another stop in tin: enrll inning series nl'isurh advances, but was the first lean inln that world nf lier'uic. smile that revealotl the power ol'tl‘u.‘ industrial Havnlltlinn, and it was the first pointin- nent._ gargantuan liijle-tnt'lmnlngs structure to he hmnght into an lu'ban setting: wl liEH-E iI. Iilr'mt—iri 1-1 ttr‘Ut'ifll part oftho ciieulaLion systan oi'n lnotmpolis. al though l-hF skyscrach oftho t'lhiaago School am usually heralded as |.h+-. let-inning of American TIIE MODERN Willi! .ll architecture from nearly every point, of view the Hmltlyn Bridge was a more potent symbol of the rising new world pot-«er. Nineteenth-century bridges represented the cutting edge of high-technology architecture. Apart From the Eiffel Tower, which was an extrapolation of Eiil'el’e bridge pylons1 there is nothing else that approaches them. Writings on the period tend to extol the Bflfl- tn still-mot spans of train sheds and exposition halls. But 1.tt-‘hat is a tfifl-I'eot span built Umnlijr'télilljr' on solid cit];r ground compared to one erchett in a remote I'Imtmlflin Wiley: over a torrential riser1 or ever an ocean inleL'.’ Till is not to men- tion that iron bridges of more than four hundred feet 1were schist-ed in the first third til the century, and that within t e next, filly years. that. length was quadrupled. 1|Fin-"hat is significant about railrnad stations, exhibition buildings. and the lilii.I is not the progress el'their ferrous or thl'i'evit-I'LH'I-us teehl‘uoleett winch fer the, meal, 512111, is based on hritl gt! design, but the was ferrous structural techniques were adapted to numetous purposes in a variety ul' ecimgtit: conIl:_:ni|n,l.1.it|tt:'1'1 together with one Uti‘ltt'l' flit:- tJnr—Llle industrial productivity that made it all possible. The Stable often Ir'on Horse. it is hard today, with jet s l]' travel cennnenplncc everywhere, to recapture the excitement ot'Lh-s railroad Daiml'im‘mt‘: when this first means oi'rnecl'lanixed transport exploded into European life in the decades after 183E]. Only a trip into space might 110W provide a sensation compel-s hle to what the railroad journey meant to a humanity wlmee Itlnvemcr'fl. over land had atom 's been restricted to I-luJ [itl'ul ptlut‘. or animal power. It challenging architecture] 3in lI-fifi opened between the city streets and the iron rails. and the ni1mmeuth eentury responded 1.trit'i't the creation oi' an ulte- gcther new building type—a stable ['or the thundering iron meme-err, e pleas to arrange passage, to dispose of luggage, await. departure or arrival, and in general real-1c the jotting transition Ins-tween the Familiar urhan world and the realm oi" steam and speed. The 'ailroatl station involved every signifi- cant factor ei' high-technology construction: utilitarian plan- ning for masses of travelers: ever].-I manner of historical styles and modes ol'seleeticism. and all the tensions and conflicts Ill.- tending sueh eo mhinations. it was the most unprecedentcd of building types, yet more than lflflflfll} examples were con- structed in the century following 133i]. 1r't'ith so vast I1 range it is possible to sketch only the outlines o:I' the nineteenth-centers train station and the taslts its liuiltlsrs laced. The railroad station combined two architectm'al forms that were iT1l1t—EJ'PI1iJI‘I-r antithetical: the train shed and the passenger huilding'. The firrnier. although providing lor the olilussettgcrs> emul‘ort h}- shelttuing them From the elements, had to he settled in overall dimensions to the trains—wide enough to accommo- date a another ei' parallel Lratlts and platforms, and high enough to di I'ihse the noxious clouds oi'steem told smelt-n. The teclnlelom' that produced the railmatl also provided the technique to house it, in the fimn ol‘ntetal-and-glase roet's.’1‘hcse were talten up as the fittine'architectural environment for the iron leviathan. The passenger huiltling could not have been more different in func- tion anti form. It was not an industrial construction housing, Ht. l'anrras .‘itatinn. London. lfifiH—Tt'r. [Science Museum. I-trttlioli] The Ntuolceoui Century 45! 'I'I-tifi Itaih‘ead Stelieri. New Haven. 'lfi-iH—ds. (Reine cite Library. 1Lille University} nmchinery. but an urban building exclusively far human use. it was when in scale~ materials, and style—a new kind at ciLy sate—and when it eutwardly reflected hietnrieising cit-y- :gate [hrmulae Whereas engineers were generally given the _ieh efdesigning the train shed, the passenger hail-ring "as the mepensibility ef an architect, and it usually was the last an the list Ufpt'ifll'ltiefi1 al'ter rails anti the train shed. The structural pruhleni at the train shed. like that al‘ the bridge, was mainly a matter ef f'nee span. Fran] 1aridge tech— nulugy, a numher el'alternatives made themselves available— Ll'tlesweth. the cantilever. and. meet eemmenly in large sLeLiuns. tile trusswerk arch. Here the essential task ei‘ the engineer, like that-cut his Reman aneesters whe had extended the a reli in tn the depth at the barrel vault; -'as tn malte the imn arch intu an il'nn vault. cenverting pure structure inte a spatial envelepe. This was accempliahed by building a series of identical arches [at cantilevers. etc}. ene behind the ether, eeaneeting them with lurlgitudinal ribs. and cevering the Whale. er most at it, with it'en-li'umed glass panels. Nineties of design eame intn play in this eperatien Le he sure, but the essence of i1. was simply I'rrpctitien—as typical a manil'estatien {If the age of limitless muse pl'uductien as ene might find. 1‘r'et the spatial effect ei‘ the lI-{i'F train shed was in inverse prelim-Lien tn its simplistic ennceptual basis: it came In he ever'wllelming. Beginning with the. dill-feet tt'ilss n1:]tr]ti.rinrlrin’s Euslnn Statinn [WEE—39], the sheds, in the farm at the truest-Perk arch, rapidly grew Inward the: great— est single shed nl‘all, St. Pants-as Simian in Isiralen USES—TE} fig. ll-Eilil. Its Ella—that span Was lint an thlll‘epill‘mr-li dilnensinn [hr hritlgns, as we knew. hill. Far an irlterinr it. was ex Lament-inst}: especially eslenilerl in depth tn liirtn the widest and largest undivided speee ever HIII‘ifIH-Hl. rI‘he. skeletal tranaqmneney nf'the Ferrnvitreeus vault added a t'uLnristie, magic. [iirTLE—‘eTJHiH‘n tn the stunning space, I::—:|hs:ially as the.l vs Ill I. was rnstle. In sprng ii'nrn the platf'ernt level when! the passenger shard. The slled thus achie'nred in three-dimensiumrl harms the same iilr'war'ii leap that the bridge accemplishetl in pure street and Iinri rig. War was t‘it. Pancras the last wnni. its singie spam was never surps seed by mere than a few fistt. but larger tnial vnlurlles were eneinsed by running several enurtniate sheds aide liy sirle: this German specialitrtr 1.tr'as seen in its [nest sthtchliallal' farm at the Leipzig Stat—inn {19137—151 with eight sheds and a tnial vrirlth “res-4 feet. The passenger buildings grevv aleng with the train sheds, indeed eventually euireaching them in extremes “Fannie. mar]- umentalitjn and sephisticatinn. esfleeialiy in he ililir1j_.[e planar-Ni by architects Lralned in the French aehunl. The statinn1 like nearly every ether huilding type, tender] in Ihllnvv nineteenth- century fashions el' histei'icisi‘tl and eeltrctiirieln. Everything was pessihleJ and seemingly every pussihilisy was IEKEillll'l-Tl in the nineteenth century. Statinns 1rvere [itted inLeEgyptian and |tireelr temples medieval cathedrals and fin-Lasers Renaissance palaces, and they even hlessmnerl intu exntii: Xanadu-litre uri— ental fantasies (Nev: Haven, 1343-, Fig. Il-i-ifi]. filter. Illeeliniee was simply a matter ei' prevailing siylistii: Fashinn. Since the railroad statien was barn in Lhe heyday ui'the Greek Revival. it is net surprising te find the passenger building ui‘ Lnndnnh Illusten Station taking the farm el'a Deric pmpylaen -: fig. 1 1—HT}. 'i‘he next decade. saw passenger buildings in ether guises, I‘er example that {if a medieval lhrtilicatien, reflecting the Reman- esquc revival and the resurgence ei' castellaied-ihrtnms LHHIl- tiens iin Salem. h-lmsacltusetts, iii-1",". Null nniy styles and hieterical typesJ hut alse basic architectural i'erms figured in this precess; tare in particular were the arch and the I.:ll.H.:l". I'Iuriiilm lhilmad Fitfitll'm. Len-lent. Iflfifls. {Nlitienul Railway Museum, Turk} 453 THE lilll IlEIiN Will-{Ll} ...
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