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architecture+of+technology2 - II-ER Len-i5 (Jubitt....

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Unformatted text preview: II-ER Len-i5 (Jubitt. King’s. (1mm Stat-inn. Llir'l'llltlfl. [551—5 3. {Museum at' Hr]! iah 'l‘mnspurt. Landon} l-HH l-‘.-_-‘L. Duquusnej. Hare I'Ie I‘Iifit. Paris. 1547—52 tea-er, which appeared ubiquiLnualy in alatinn facades. The farmer wua a veiled reference tn the ltmmm t-ri111‘lipl1fll arch, in any case. ayltihelizing the,l event HF lit-mange hem nae plane ttJ another and, 111 man}? in sum real ax [Jl ini Ll}; reflecting the shape 11;" the train shed, The Lama-11' waa H Hl'r'l'fll'llfll. Elf centrality- and pun-er; with its ieenit' elnelc. it drew an Lhc tradition of he“ t-IJWEJ‘E and their simialing Ll1r-1 I11|11r1untnus events in. urban li Fe :13 wall :21: the passage (if Lima—me 114ll:|'1'l1‘1fi tn the earnings and gnjngn eff-:10 train; Althnuflh Ll‘au't' never appeared a definitive formula. architects were 11:; and Large remarkably succefis‘ful in this. patchwnrh EHIEILEI 1|nil-1‘: generally recognize a nineteenth-century T'al'lmatl filial-inn [Fur what it Ls. 1‘1 majer issue i'er arehilmia was the extent to whit-h the train shed might be iT'IeLu'IaIrultal in the station facade. Then-'2 were three basic suiutiuna; ranztlletuly hide the shed, rflUEHl 1'L directly, er plat- with. its inn-r11. "These alternatives are exem- plified in three classic, 11;.iIl-ni1|ethniitli-I:L?1‘1t1.2l.1£'_'|§r statiens. At St. Panama Stalinm the shed in hidden behind a timid, High Victerian Gethic railway lietal by t}. Ii}. Scott. Conversely. the twin v3 ults nf' Lhz-I. train filled Ullfiflfijs Uress Statien [[9511—3321] in Landau, by Lewis Culiilt, are hnldly revealed in its unnam- pmmisingly E'unetinnalial, lhtalde [ilfi Ill-GEL The third alter- natit'eis represented by LII-s{lure111':1'Est{184'?—52;fig. iI-EH] 1'11 Paris by FrA. D uqeesnelt; where the shed image is integrated The Nineteenth Cell.th in a particularly snphlsticated and elTsctirn manner. Working in the fashienahle Italian Renaissance Etyle, Due neaney set twin, chaiueeentn palaces mm a U—shape reini nianent of Italian vi |- las, yet else reflecting the classic French chateau design n’r'nnd paviliens enanected I1]; a luwer (.11er (In hens. 1‘111etl1e1' glance reveals a cathedral image: the neutral windew suggean the rese windew at" the Gethic Facade. 1IuL nnlj: in its shape and pesitien. but else in its Lirenwer'l-Ll raynanant tl‘ilDEI'j'. Althnugh we knew that the huil'tiins,r is neither Renaissance palace nnr medieval eethedral, its: iernaigi'aphy suggests bet]: the epu- leace vi the J‘nrmer and the tranaceudenhfl experience 111' the latter. Since it eeuld nnt he hath cathedral and palace: the building must he “semethiea else," and the nature e!” that “semething else“ was indicated by iba nneaness at gmund level [fer the vast ernwds in h'annitl and. meal. crucially, by the half- 1'esn window [net the whale 11119 LIFueJ1.I1cflrflJal, perceived +1?- thn two-ditutenainnal prejeetinn til the tmh' Hart of the building unique to the railread statinn—tla- barrel-vaulted iren shed. {Jur three examples can 11ml}! suggest scene of the mere imjml'tant mid-century anlutiuns 111‘ the state'en “problem.” Perhaps a better idea at the jii'egl'aaa mild:- in answering WE challenges-1 passe by the type. can he gained if we extend our survey tn the late phase lilfififl—lflEU} er the railroad stat-ien. New ank’s lGrand Central Statinn HEMP} 13] by Reed and 1 LT“ ltaml 11ml t'u'Lvlrnl1 “ral'l'eu arlll “’Ptmnrea Gram]. {l-Ihll'l'l'al BLI‘LLiu-n 1'11 I!“ -I_ New ‘l‘ntk. IEIUJEI—Ill 11:11 amml [Jenn—.11 Stadium: [linsmm- New Yurk- E Tiraw’mn by Eli Neural-c) 453 Stem. Warren and Wetmore (figs. ll-TU, ll-"r'lll is contained within a Tuscan Doric shell; while it does not have the serene harmony of a Doric temple, it is endowed with the grand scale and dignity of the French Hernia-Arts tradition in which its designers were trained. it signals clearly to us that it is indeed a railroad station with its two station icons: the prominentlj,T displayed, srndpturalljr celebrated clock tewerinp; above the main facade, and the triad ot'vast arches below. But it is the interior of Grand Central that represents the rice piers alter! in station planning: two levels of' tracks (divided between oom- rnuter and long—distance lines}. a barrel-vaulted, monumental eririelinrse lane at the great ir11el'ilirsriil he per'irid}1 and s. more- lliari-r:rirr|plel.e set tiressily reached services, all crinnected hi,- all ingenirnis HyHLHr1lferH1l1|JH and stairs that arr;l integrated on saversl levels with the. surr'Luniriinr;r streets. sidewalks. and sirliwsy syslern. F-ltaljnris werel haill aI'Ler {iranrl CentralJ hut. ririne apprriardleri i1s arlrriirhess in plannngI which represents a llJHltiri rill‘ F‘rerich design riletlnllls1 American lirr-rgrr.-atisrn1 and the pnwerliil aria-In lierces iri wearithy New ‘I’nrlr. The Free. Wart-pirer rIurI MHrkelpIrms. it was rIaLa r—al thaL the Factories and marketplaces that came iritn lieing d Iiring the industrial Hewlllitinri—r-i wlinle range rirliil ildings hnasirig tire productinri a rirl exchange at grinds anrl services—shralld he trarislirrrned ll__1..' the rise at industrial irialer'ials. The first [it l.llE!Ht’.lHlilllit1_Lt types tri he affected was the textile Factrlry. For its simple lirirl-r-wallsd structure. which rarl as high as seven and eighteturies. [he suhsti |.II|.iriIi Iiiinirl lirr |.iir1lier and hriclr. prnved irresistible, given the medals rsysl.ern rIFsuppnrts that eruplriy'ed rnass-prlidneerl. stalnlardined components {i.e.. dimens at identical cnlurrins arid heanis]. lly lTFlE'i—ii'i' [he first textile Inill 1wit-h a enrnplele internal shalelrlri [irinrli appeared in Shrewshnry, England. Trill-1 ririe that Iiillriwedl iri Ii'Fl'liI—Ifiill at lialliird—laiilL liy the Hairline alirl Watt [earn rained iiii' their sLearn engine—is lietter harassing. Il—T‘El. dis recorded in its original drawings. this elittnn rilill was Mil l'eeL by 42 islet ill plan and seven sturies in height [IIJllllr-illfll Iiir its day}. lilac—E1 floor was riivirlrsl by two ranges LiFflEJHL—lflltl erilnrinis carrying, a ;.',rirl er east-iron eeilirij-j, liealris running Ln the walls. 'I‘lley snppm'ted segmental lirie vaults that were leveled tn the shave-lying Ilnnr level with an inlill er marsh rsincrete. ll-TE Ballltrin and Watt. Working drawings For a textile. mill. Salfnrri. l-lnclarirl. “III I. (After Giralieni in the first half of the nineteenth century, innumerable exam- ples of such iron workplaces [in reality.r sweatshops filled with iron machinery! were built in England and elsewhere. By 1350, wroughtriron beams were substitutes! For the cortipsl'sLirelJr brittle 'ast iron in frameworks, sometimes supporting ennui-etc— Liver-ian vaults; this had spa-sad nini'r-l garierally through high- grade construction in Britain and dii'l'used to a lesser degree elsewhere. The principal type in this diti'usion was an sl l—puqilee commercial building nearlyr identical in its scheme to the early factories. The main dif‘f'erenre was that whereas the factories were generally sited in eutlying or rural Ira-aliens, lhe commer- cial huildings were rlisl irietly nrlian. F‘aelriries Were generally freestanding and herine can“ lie "firmed all anarnd with win- dnws', the city buildings were typically rnw llnilrlirigs. their fenestration restricted ts facade and FI-‘HI' [except For corner Inc-aliens). Maxims rii v.'iridriw area nri the turn Faearles was thus a priority Ehr these dis-lap, narrriw, uni‘ITrir-Ireisl r‘leiliI spaces1 lint. at. the same time s rrinrr-I lilrrnal rilarirler [11' facade was required Lhan Iin' the rural, utilital'iari lactnry sheds. The cast lFtJJl tbaL had earlier lieen sli desiralile Iiir the internal sirnetnrr: tillhnsl the linilder rif allrsit Il'llill an slglially irresistilile snlutinri tn the reuui reinerits ril' the crinilnerr'ial Facade. IT'llis idL-ia was Hifllf'l-ly’ 1e prnjecl.l.hesl-:e|eI:-rl irrin s1.rnc|.nree“.he irllerinrdirectlynrilri the Facade in the Iiirrn ril”preperly llislnrir'rrjrig easta-iran articulation. Hath sdvanlages ririniri nnald thus la: earrlliilrsl: its it'ril'riduciliih i1.yrifrir|y' desired sllape lly llle casting prneess, and its strength, perrnilliug these shapes ta iJL“ attenuaierl and thus minimally 11-?3 .Inhn (issuer. llsaghwriut Building. New Turk. iii—it'll THE li'lflDEllN Wflflhfl ll-T-‘i Peter Ellis. l[l‘riel Chambers. Lise rpeu'l. “UH—Elli. ehstructit-‘e ef fenestration. [last iren facades were more ram men in the America efthe 13505, sixties, and seventies than any- 1where else. It 1.ras a New Yerlt entrepreneur named James Regardus 1shecl'.-;irnd.'d te have first invented the idea. and sceres ef striking examples are still preserved. in New York‘s Sehe dis trict. The earliest examples realize the potential ef cast iren in a sintple traheated fermat ef surprising elegance. But a pest 15:30 passien fer m ere sculptural architectural effects resulted in elab- erated Eacade schtmies. eiten ef arch-and-lintel Renaissance reerlrs, which snmewhsl. tvmln'emisctl the epenness and struc- l1l1'Hl rlireelness al— the simpler type. Perhaps the classic maliza- 1iIIn efl llt'firt‘. tendencies was the Heua'hweut Building; (fig. 1 l-‘TEII in New Var-F: II I856]. built by Jehn GHETIUIT ef' prefiihritated cast- ir'nn sscliens predated fer him by Begardus‘s cempch'ter, Daniel Hedger. “used an the sixteen th-L'em tury TIJanetian st,er LifJaeLm-e Her-resins: the building, r'atlier than mindlesle extrapelatiaar Lhe qu erlijr‘IllllEI-‘illl. In:-1r'l1|e stnr'ies cll'l'iaiisrwinrfs T-iln'eria intn list- clumsy series as rare might have expected. ereales instead an urimislslltr-Jllle aura are“I.lielil-ii:il.j.'. This qua lit]; is {ha- mainly Ie the hILild irllfs 1irn£rlirlinr1s, wherein the mural massivcmess of the 1|r'eneiiall nl'i;_;ir|s| lLHs lieen pared :irnsn, leaving a skeleton ef elilumrls Hull an airy; _';.-'el. lir'rn: texture. entirely appropriate te th e |'||_'l_|.'r'li-Jlil-|.!|::|l|.JJr1r1Fil ll'lilll lillir'ir. Hush easl -i Fllrl fi'tlrils werer1nl.lhe wl‘lnle HlI'1T'_'|,-' rii'ernnrnernial linealsz er the [Jer'iml. Med iesal1 Hrllil even lsli-trllit:I lissliinns Jll'tilillarii |.eLl Filling with Classical Hush-Is. A tendency appeared, I'l'lllr'llll'r'lll': Ln £|Jll.lH}ll.l-‘. the l}l_‘th'-l!.'-Jllii-'! effect lifitlerit.ita+| thirs will‘: the erilplnylnen'. Hf the giant [Jr-tier. nrsl HI'Il_'|.-' in Classical Tulsa. in] I. ulsu JLJW1t1'rlllRIIEr‘IHr‘IFJ-i:IIH E-Jlltl slenller‘ {Illilll‘l'lr'lfllrl’l' t-i . l l s The Nineteenth Henna-3; l'ernls. as 1sell as wildly celeeLie cenlbillutiens. .‘EUJ' were such facades limited te east iI'eIL. Just-es l'rlrnlas hallsng lilac mansenl'ji' were ei'len ei' cast iren1 eenversely, Lllese ell-pleyieg elements-:- tluit Iueluai :Js ‘l.l:lt]qul they went, er sheulci be, cast iren were until; inti-utluuritly 'ul' stunts. r'tiiti elten materials were mixed. Perhaps the mast litsci n nting and farmyard-leaking csansple ef such eIItansltsJ.,re1- pregressive, Lendeneies ie the “'DIl-lmflwn Uriel Ulnuuhers tllg. .11-74J et" Mild—[:15 in liivernenl 11;; Peter Ellis. The cantilevered. liar-windewed eriels are all plate glass and slender irnn frames, but Lhe. tlnthicising celumnar ele- ilieriis La iin'ili Ul'Hlillll. under] that gather the 1111::th inte high. narmw hays are efstenc. Nevertheless, it 1was from such exper- imental commercial werlts ef the third quarter ef the centurjr that the crucial hindernist develnpment ef the Chieage Scheel would draw its resources in the lililfi'fi-‘illg decades. Such eenarnercinl buildings were net only places efwerl; hut else til-exchange. Many. iii-Li: the Haughwflu‘t Building, sewed 1'15 department stem-s. effertng under ene reef-he geeds previeusljr said separater in specialty sheps. Many-storied sales snip-aria were a particularly American pheneinenen, grewins: in the late. nineteenth century te buildings of m'echaieus scale. But in Iturepe, especialltr in chance, a difi'erens architecttual selutien I'nr- delinmnent stems had already begun te talte shape in the earl}- ninetcenth century. l-‘rench architects did net si1np1_,'l:r stack chre'acterless utilitarian slabs ef spaee ene ahese the ether, but designed inare architecturally anthitieus interiers. es reali ted in such classic, late nineteenth century examples as the ".‘Ir'lagasius 11-?5 Gui-stare Eiflel and Leah-Charles Bells-an. Magasins flu Bun h'larché. Paris. 1$7fi 4H? ll-".'"ii IIrictnr fl-ultartl. Lite Ilallca Central-:3». Paris. 1353. (Engmving by 1'. Beltard and 1". Ballet. Biblinthizuuc Nationals. Paris) I l-TT J. H. l-l-unning. [Zeal Exchange. London. 1546-413. (AIth Hitchcock} urn-i- w'u .- L"L .‘u-n a. -1_1e-' llU Finn h‘larulié “lg. 11-75} oi" latiti, in Paris, by Eiffel and. LIIH tlrttllittad lands-Charles Builtalu, the shopper was enngibd by large wells of spam; rutilirfl hit- lbrmritreous skylights. sur- rounded by tiers title-luunylihe sales areas, and crossed by aerial irtiri bridges. The result was. il glittering, light-flooded shrine of imnsumerisrll nitsinl. tn- lut‘c the masses of customers iron;- com- wtitlil's “flaring r ll'LtHlilll'r' identical merchandise. Other hir'iutta chanteuse were also given high-technology arc-hi Lecturzll surroundings. The most basic constirner market- place was, oi“ course, the mad ore and meat market. In eariier centuries such nutrient Elfllith'. had been sheltered. at least in part, wit]; open, lumialiltc structures. in the nineteenth cen- 456 Lurj', this practice was adapted to the new building technoiegji, which was perfectly suited to marl-zet needs. ltequired was not any monumental ibrm ot'wall, but simply canopies of roofingr that could be quickly and cheaply sup-plied in ferror'itreoos form. The most impressive et'the early iron marketplaces were the Halies Centrales I'fig. tl-iti] in Paris, begun in 1853 as per; ol'l-lanssmann’s grand urban scheme. He had rejected the original design ofthe architect ‘Ir'ictor lislterd, Twhich called for an ease-naive masonry pile, insisting;r “111.: For! Lia fer! Rien one do for!" EaJtard’s spectacular rows eI'iron sheds [destroyed in the lil'r‘tlsl demonstrated the potential of the new technolog}r even in the hands ot'an unent'nusiastic builder. {if the man]: nineteenth-ceoLm'j-r mercantile exchanges. the most notable high-technology example was J. E. Bunniog‘s Coal Exchange ifig. 11-71”.- oi' [Std—4.9, in tendon. Here one saw almost nothing of the masonry walls. but rather a richljtr poly- chromod interweaving ofa circle or iron ribs reaching From the floor up through the [en-ovitreous vault. Mashed through these verticals were three tiers. ol'belcontes supported by classicieing iron consoles. Still more elevated as a piece of “exchange” was the settlers. where public interaction oFa more general sort was encouraged beneath imn-and-glass 't-‘titrlla. often framed by fashionable shops and high-class commercial enterprises. The most famous specimen of this eminenth urban institution is the lGalleria Vittorio Emanuele or liitili—tii. in Milan, by Giuseppe Metgoni {coinrplate Ejti'i. it is a building that, as much as any other1 puts to rest nusapprebensions about the validity oi'nineteenth- century architectural eelsticism, For here is revealed just honr majestic can be the often maligned,I "compromised" combination of floating fel'rorit-mous vaults. ever elaborate street Facades. The Milan Galleria is one oFthe lbw buildings 1Whose elT'ect on even casual visitors lives ever after in their sunniest dreams. Cast-Iron Cflflurfif (Hui Its-Hymns [inflicting-s. The use of high-technology materials and methods in nineteenth- century architecture the}: the l‘orm flfl’tfll} ot'thoso :pyramids ol— distrihujnu" so familiar to us item the social sciences. The new Liz-clinologj,f 1was most widespread in utilitarian building types— Eactoric—s, hridt'res,t1-.-_1in sheds.I :narltets,which provided ibrwhai were usuaflp considered the "lower'i economic forms of human activity. As one rneved up the pyramid through department storesE exchanges, galleries, and beyond, the new materials tended to be used in a restricted way. camouflaged by hisloricia— Lug {hr-ms, or err-n hidden entirely from Vi ow. These tendencies were strongest at the top of the [it-rs mid. in the realm el'cullul'e and mug-ion, From which the visible Fabric of the new architec- tural tecl'tnologj.r was generally excluded. However. there were some run-tabla exceptions; and because such high-level works miter: received the most monumental and creative architectural treat-ment-.J these examples are distinguished buildings indeed. lt-was a long-standing French tradition to view the t'rothic as a historical embodiment of architectural rationalism. In the irid- oinetetsit-h centu r3, this current was revired and was unculested in the menstruation ofa number of castrimn E'a'othic churches. The nutin practitioner of‘cast-imn Gothic was Louis-Auguste Heiltl‘tlu Ifiither el' Iiiiliel's coilaborater in the Ben il-‘Iarche store]. and his app-mach was essentially.r to retain a l[lothic I'orrnal vocabulary and scheme. but to exploit the stormed strength ol'iren to reduce finches,- struetursl mass. Fit-Eugene in Paris tidbit—55; fig. I. |_-T'Hl, the first ol‘lioileau‘s several iron IGothic churches, was co.-tcrent THE hil'JDERN' WIIELD ll-TH Lenin-Auguste. Built-mu. HI cliuflthllfi. Paris. 1354-55 and even meeting in the extreme attenuation ef its cast-iten columns, the thinness at its cieres'tergr' 1a-‘alls and arches, and the lightness at its vaults, wbese 1.itebs 1s'ere made up of se man}: iruuu sheets. Hut neither tit-Legend ner the later tilt-Paul in li'lentiucen ilSti'ti—Eilii, nei- any at his ether cast-iren T.eerlts real- ised the visitln el'ltis mere ambitie us Luiez-tecuted schemes. s prej- sct el' 1354-, I'ur example. called far a chapel at St. Denis in Tri'hich the Unung were built u p erer celunuis afentreme attenuatirm te H [thyJi-estlue pyramid el‘ webs and tirinde‘ar lunettes. The hcstiie rcsetians pmrnltetl h}? Beileau‘s iren architecture were sj'Tnptc- mutic ut'the Limes, liar he was caught in a typical nineteenth-cen- tun,- eressiire ei'eentrndietnry ebjeeijens: Some critics felt that an inuu structure stieuid leek se evertljr Gothic as Beileau’s, but rather niece lilte a radii-ray shed; fret such puaelgr utilitarian fin-ms wele eensidered inadequate te the spiritual demands eFa chmich. t'lne efthe greatest cultural buildings cfthe nineteenth cen Lu r3.- Le use iren in a prominent, visible way was uncleestienahhr the Iiiblietheque Ste-Genevieve in Paris, designed by l-icnri Lnbmuste and built Le 1842“ EU teelerplate 'r'l; tl-T‘EI—l 1-8 | ]. The large {27% by HE] feet] tire-started structure filling; a wide. sballeu- site is deceptively simple in scheme: the lrncer ilrsn- is nccupied by stacks tn the left, rare-beck stare-tee and silica- space ie The right, with a central vestibule. and staim'ajr' leading In the reading reein which flls the entire upper sterjr. The Tcrr'cus st ruc- tuee hi this reading reeni a spine ef slender. cast-iris: hinic miurnns dividing the space inte tea—1n aisles and supptn'ting aperi— werit Lren arches that carry barrel vaults cf plaster reitzfiil'l:eli h}- 1‘lie. Nineteenth Century ircn mesh—hue always been revered by h'ledee'nists let its inim- duetisn slide 1 teelutelem late a menumentai building. Tint- their mlmirutitlri ul' Labreuste’s Jnasterpieee was limited 1.0 ilui-i it‘l'ln- werk. The masts-1r}- shell, even if elegantly pmprn't-innetl and line];r detailed, wasmueb lamented as an imlaisening. merihimd hulk. Fertunateiy, reeens scholarship has expeseri the blindness at this apples-ch tn the true character ci'the building. The edifice is in liict imperlant net because it uses iren, but hit I he we} i1. is used, and the work is gr‘flflt as a centplex and meaningfill whale. in ether wards, in the Bibliethbctue Ste.flteneiieh'e we are at the very tee nt‘eur pyramid ei'hi,sr,11-techrtelcgjg.r architecture. fit. this pimmclm things were quite difi'ea-snt thus the bettent, far unlike a railivraj,T bridge. a train shed, er a limiter-y, in liahrnuate's library there was no clear need for irnn. The width at" the reading ream eeuld easily have been vaulted with tradil-ienal Lechniques, and the use 01" iron entailed 11o aigl'iifituint ecnnnmies. {termini}; ne advancement efeneineerlng was involved itilthmlgh the pins-1131'- erverirm] vault was ingenimial. In using ir'en, laibfiiutstt'! was making a purpesefiil sultan-ism thl. ean only he unrlerstisid in the contact nfcl-ie whuls building, a wart: that turns eul. tn be a paradigm: txl'the snphialiea ted eelsetieisn‘: (If this ptti‘iifl'h The system b}..- which lahreusts endewed his structure with meaning was. brilliant. His Fundamental idea was is iden- tify the building as a library by git-Eng i1. the appearance at" a back. Such an idea. at ceurss, was use that. Letieun 1.eeultl hare leved. ICine can even imagine beer Lsduus, whe we recall had designed a brethel in phsJIus Jhrrn and a t:enper"s werksbep as a heaped barrel, might have eunesised such a library. But in Labreuste’s day. such spmusneeus, mniantic entltusiasn'is were rte lungs]- permitted. The selutien had it: he mere struc- tural]? reasnnahle. Iiinc.l.iti:‘|3li_y respensible. and hisiariealljr allusi‘re. Labreusle’s principal ieenngrapbie device was ene ei' aTel'Iitetdzurr-i's eldest means—the inscriptien. He inscribed bis building with the names el‘ tilt] at the anthers whase heelts wars Le lis- abstained in it. The names 1were engraved en the stuns psnsls that haelt the wall-shelving inside. and the;-r run chmmilugiesl |_1.- J‘mm lsfi. Le r'iuht aniund the three public faces ufthe building. [in is making The. buildings,r resemble a heel: since we: read the names in sequence ill-it! 'i'v'tin'ls an bequ pages. The rl-.'-!1.'it't-! (IF the extended :‘nst-riptien was true keg; he the image sl‘ the building as a library", anether was created by means firl-H't'l'lllHII-Ilr'l-ll :tllusitl‘l‘i. The earlier libraries 011 which labmusls draw wen: the :s-u use-t pretrinent seiutiene tn the problem til'tninsla'uclintfi u rE'IIIIHL-iilltllrlyf, Lit-:st-ZtnriEd library 011 E: lung. ntsr'l'nw sits: Clinic-initith lhrt'trti's Trinity tit-liege Library at Cambridng I. lfiTfil and [ht' tIItIrt: lulnluia Lihreria {ll l‘i. I'r'larce in Venice-r by .lstsipu Hausa-cine Iifiififi}. ‘Ir'fhat Lalnnustc tenth l'rem Iht-nn was their areh-un-pier i-‘Ll‘tictufl'. But he rejected their eelsnmar. 1.raln:-.':1.t':ti articulatien as structuruihr ncncesrmiel terms that did net centre}.- the. l'unctian cf the building. rl‘tI take their plats-I he I‘riund 'le.-_"l|."!l' seurces. {line 1.ras the Medici Hank in Milan til the tines [awarded in a drawing by the itenaiesimm H1'tfl1il.l-H![ and treatise irriuu' Fflarete}. The Paris library prea- snts an uneannily clust- appresiaiatien te this building in its lung, lew prelss-tiuns. its ciesed lewer and epened upch statics, the small slnrrply Hilluti windews cf the letter mine. he li‘ieze (if resumes, and seen the spandrt—l deeeratien ever the main Win- ilsu-s. The niajer :li.~ir.niri1._~_ir between Labreestc and his medal is the Ila-m st” the upper star}: where the Milanese windews are replaced by a rtas starches ere-r piers. This trunslbrms the Lippi: I‘ 45'? ll-Til‘ Henri Lulirmisl e. ililrliethhqne 5119:“E'I'Ifi'rl eve. Paris. lH‘EE—fifl' ll-HJEII I’ve-yer; flihlioiherlue Sir... Genevieve slant-r into a reflectirirl at the. flanks effllberti’s famous 'lhmeie MiIlHIJ-‘slisrln in Tti mini. but again there is a discrepancy: apart li'eln seine Llnnhs at the I'rialat'esm tlji'iiasttifilherti's arches are. Lfilrillllt-tlflll‘g' empty. El'rir a l'acade ‘r'lr'l'lUELl openings are half-filled with ser'een walls lahr'nuste turned te an ancient source, the Pillll'llnlll! Egyptian temple. line HLIL‘h example. is the shrine nf l—lzill‘itir i-Jl. Tl'l-‘EIElPr'l-I, H building that. suggests a cleaned hm: entered with inser'ilnrrl lllHI'HFI'r" synlisils. remarkath sugg‘stirn if the literary. 'T'he “Hauling all these. In'I-Lrlapping medals is. not hartl to find. llhu lli-llllt. is in Lr'r-eIquj' nil material wieilchr a tilt-rate is a. -:'~'lA.:-I:'L‘l:‘l.llLl.l—It! lilIl-l'u.‘ |r1llrl£prfitllllllfi riehr—is ni'Ll'ler tern-id's great liter- fltUJ'C“. The ether denials—pagan anti {Illir'islim'z temples rein- three this l'fllilltll'FJFEELl-lll'lln er tin-r. “library.” Iii-r they miner-i]: the. iIZlDfl that its contents are Iltll. |2IIll_}I' premiums hitl Ham-ed. The Eu'tlii'li'JEtur-t: til-the l'clfltllrljll rnnr'r'. appears Ln have. its nwn nt'crlfzppii'lg lm'els nl' HlH’II'llllll-JthJll. 'l'he' Hr'flfit‘lfl til-the. enter wall represents mitiqniljr,‘ Lite. structural Helm-inlet within is basil-Jilly medieval l1 twfl-flisliai sparse with light 1-'.:-ILIIL_-t rest—:1" :1 cent'al Spin:- of slender mlLLInns, similar Li} a {-illll‘llt‘. realist-hwy; the. irnn material and iron arehes present the naltierll age. PHr'haps the. most trenchant aspect of this ElrlflltllLlrlilll‘llllf‘fl-ll-r1llHlEFl'l Hymhel- ism is the last layer. it was 11:11. the mere presence llr i run that sig- naled the reading reoni’si hie-Clernisiil, hlil. ir'nn in llIt-i lijl'1t‘l nl'a railway El'IIZ'El, since ra'u'itllid, irnn-a rellerl learn-3| vaults were nearly t‘YClUi-ii‘i'e te stations at the: lill'ltl. NnleinH symlallizell Llit-i I1it1£lEH1 wet-Id better than :1 train station. Yet lihmry-as-lraie shed eenld Cfll'l'} still anether meaning: the library as a place el'jtmrney inle the hister'ical werltl eithe. intellect and the imaginatien. Labrouste was presented by the site from having the. garden lhreceurt to the library that he. had 'ant-etl as a Lninsitien iron] the street, so he creaLed one illusienistically with Fresco. lln both sides at the vestibule a garden seems in rise behind low "walls," in Lahreuste‘s werds “[i'em the iirrlilr. sail al' the imaginaLieri.” Here. tea, the hisLerit-al llama! ef the building asserts itself. in the busts el'French cultural luminaries lining the walls, and above all in the architecture: The piers, with their rigid lines and preminent iinpost blocks. create the impressien at an Egyptian hypostrle hall: the fluting oi the piers renders them Ulassical, mid the irenwerk arches con- nectng them represent modernity. i] ust as the ironwork oi the readineIr reeni renders the icenegraehi-r of the railroad shed, so the ironwork ol' the vestibule creates miniatLu-e renderian ei' ene. at the ether prominent high-teclinolege novelties—the east-iren bridge. Again this was out a symbol of mere contem- per-armies. let the idea el'a ,ieurliey inte the realms el'tlie imag- inatiun appears ta have been a leitinetii' oi the library. liut what efLabrouste’s iibrarir in its relation to lieaiut-Arts architeetural ideals? To sciyone seeing with Ecele-trained eyes, the building leeked vie—y stremee. Leewtliing about it seemed antithetical LL;- t-raditien. Its prepertiuns were lens and nan'ow, its tire sterics elelt apart; the erders were reduced to half- enelesed arch-ea rr-yini; piers. irisualliir sub-ordinate te the insciip- liens; the. bars seemed repetitive. u-‘itlieut distinction el'i'acade and sides. indeed. with but much at an entrance, the eaten- sii'e ireuwerlt. mereever. 1e‘as EllflfllelESS-L‘y' exposed. fin acuLc- aha-ewe]: liewinrer. would have serm Labreustels distortions of t-T'atlitien net as perveise but as a necessary part of the library's new legit! and syruhelisrri. 'l'lie. hui Itling, in iii-st.J is ilnpessihle tt: imagine apart from the lilcele. rehese aesthetic system Labroustc hereicelly bani be his ewe purposes. This was not truly a matter at the pelish at the design arcl its details. The plan is a typical. truss-axial Hearts-arts scheme ingeniously: realized in tare cen- gruent steries—the leng main axis el'tlie upper lleer crossinsr the short main axis el'llie lewer sane—rather than the usual single level. lllhel' signs el' lli;.'.ui:{-r"n‘t.s planning are the modular spa-:— itig. the precise r.'.r.l's.I'ri,":-Hr'.im.' anti disposition nl' the variant: ele- meats, :1an (these all in LlLt: inrrrru're. the [TTLH'lltfil-j'lrjntil sequence at— strong, resonant images lircllti the i‘xler'ier, Llii'eilgh the entrance. to the reading remn. 'I'he FlJllLlfl nl'Lhe lileele is every-12.1mm, and. it gives to what. might- llt‘eri' been a llnrligeiietlge ni' lhnetienal space and symbolic images .1 dynamic and .'n'i:l'.iteel.1:1'.'.il errler. I1: is vital to see French archi1cctural radicalism el' | .ahreusle'e generation not as extraneous to the licele, l'Jltl- :I'E'ILl‘if'l‘ fer e. hal. it really was—a interim met'einentfmm Within, conceived and prac- ticed within the parameters of the liicele system. [.aln'euete was the meat efhie circle. and his liihlietheque tim.-l_1'i.‘~:ie-riei-r: pushed the Beaux-i‘ir'e system In its limits. lie never again attained the same leeel. but a decade later i l HRH—litig- he did build ene ether impertant high-technology building—the lilhlieththae Natienale. in Paris. For l‘vletlernisse, its ataclt ream has always been the. high point ef Labrouste‘s eaieer tfig. 11-52]. In arder to preside t'er illilllJiIthI reliance, he built five eteriee el‘staclte slang- sitle a ctsitral well. The ceiling is entirely ferrevitrc-eus. and the stack liners are a transparent grid at caet-ime plalee, aliens-int:T light in lilter thieugh ta device that Labeouste probably derived TH E 31 llIlI-l as WU'RLD fmm tl'lL . :_. ' ' ' " lti'r'l'l'!'n‘[:'-'.- 51.311 -:.i t. u" ..'. ' ' ' ' ' E- fi'nr'ms ' ' fit. . ' 11-32 llenri Laln'mlstc. Stacks, Bibliotlteque Nationals. Paris. ldfifi—Hl‘l almost- no decoration or lustorieiaing enthtdlish moot, it. was not. no to engineeling. Lahrouste was incapahlc ofdosigning anything without trousiotrning it. into art ieven the. patterns arrivals}. No matter what lie. built, it was architecture with a capital A, dietar- mincd visually and not merely by engineering calculations. iatontitmalllir or not. Lat-toasts coulti not help hut castle. in the Uihliolltiague Nationales stack room when was among the first. if not the first. significant Modernist archittastn'al dosignt. ‘Iiht he remained :1 men ofthe mid-nineteenth century. An [le-l'iitll'tltlli-ti'}' glass partition gave. a full. distant vietJ-I ol'the stacks to the math-r. but Labor-Lisle hid them behind hoary;r velvet curtains. The Iron Exhibition Building. Despite their nit-en stunning success, these examples oi'high tool-innings, from the simplest iron bridge to Lflhrousic’s libraries. in one way or another have their limitations as ornhotli mouts oft-he industrial civilization that was increeamgly a control fact oflift— ia the nineteenth century. Finite- ries, markets, railroad stations. and exchanges were. after all, [,n'imv affairs, and even though mat-I3.- oi'thc aspflfltiefls oi'ihe age were brilliantly realized in iron amhitecture. the stmcturcs were only fitllfy‘ appreciated by 21:1 elite audio-n on. Sowhere lmve we en- owntered an Industrial Age eounierpart. of what ELL-[Liens {lat-he- tiral was for the rigs of faith, Baiinellcschfs demo for Renaissance Florence, and St. Peter's for the High Renaissance and Baroque. Yet the nineteenth century did produce an iron "cathedral"—not a lasting monument in the traditional sense but ambitious, tem- porary strocmres erected in die half-century when the industrial Age was reachiim its maximum crescendo: the. inicuiational expo- sition-1 that heganin London in 13:31 and Clirnnxud in l‘uris in, 1889. To understand the architecture ol‘tho exhibitions, one must; know their purpose. The idea was to luring Logolghor ir. one place 4th] the products of all the nations, to facilitate their study. improve- meat, and sale in E1 world of increasing free trade. Ul' course nationalistic pride played a big roie—l-lnglnnd [taunting its advanced industrial prowess to the world in 1851, France show- ing in LETS how it had recovoretl front the Franco-Prussian 1|.-'t-’ar, and America in 18th celebrating its 100 veac rise to power. The exhibitions were not merer trade fairs, hut displayed ever]; manner of invention and production including indus- trial machines, means of trnnslmrt, ogrieultural implements, household wares, as well as the applied and line arts. The i'airs weiu, in effect, celebrations of industrial civilisation itself, not. only its material reality but its highest ideals. rll'he fair buildings can desorvedlj; be called iron r"catl'iedrals" because ultimately.r the exhibition were an expression of faith. ofa blind yet tmder standahie beliefthat the Industry of Nations would in. its accel- erating progress solve the needs ofmanltind. Still another dimension to the eelebrative character of the axliihitions was their role as an industrial version of traditional popular feslivals—ll'asching, Cat—nova]. I'dardi Gras. Oktoberfest. and so on. 'l‘llih is an important i'aettn' in understanding why high- tecl'lnologr al'chiLeULUTe was permitted for such notable public events. To he sure. modular ironwork facilitated rapid assembly and Ell-iii]? di sm antling, vital economic considerations...:‘is a typical industrial product, straightforward iron cmistruction was also consirisrsri appropriate for industrial display. But the degree to which ironwork was exploited and displayed in exposition con structions of great scale, inventiveness, "ind extravagance can onlyI he understood in terms of the spirit of popular festivals. 'l‘roclitiimal I55, they were events in which everyday limits of dines, speech. behavior, even sexualityr were disregarded Ll.'.|. a head;-r atmosphere cr'oiten drunken permissiveness. For the moment everything was possible including a structural extravagance, normall ,1..- proscribed. that celebrated the energt,r ofthe event. Although the international fairs were held in man}.r cities throughout the world. none created more of a sensation than London's listJsition of 185-1 1with its ICrystal Palace [figs ll-ttli, ll-fifl]. its designer was a prominent garden architect. Joseph Fasten, who. in conjunction with the engineer-contractors Fox and l lsnriersnn, created what amounted to a giant green house. 1which was fabricated of little more than panes of glass and iI'on—nrui—woud l'r'l-zrnewurlt. Their eononmporar}: Charles nicltcns, in Household it"orrl's. captured the audacity of the scheme in the liillnu'inL: tin-ruthless. description; 'l'wn parties. itt London, relying on the arena-ac},- -.u-_d good i'iLiLli Lifter- TH'll'l tron-masters. gloss: workers in 1.l‘||I I_trrli'iI1-;'r_-_~_:_ and ul'nnc- muster- cHrpl—tntnr in London, h-ozntr. rheroselvos for :t err-Lain seat, to cox-og- l-‘i nip-round, with h'.1ildingupwoirla off; third of a mile longr [13.5] lL., the exact. date oftlte tesr; and some -1 Fill hroad. In ordt-r to [In this, the glass-matter promised to super in tho requirt-rl tin-o nine hundred thousand square fi'et ot'glass lur'oiglti‘ng,r moo-r- than -1 null tons: in separate pa FIE-5, and those the largest that. til-om over math: in ah Pct-glass, each Losing «til inches long. 'l‘he iron-master gas-o his. word in. a like manner, to cast in riue time .‘l..'i[lll iron minions, v::I'_v ing from "H 'll'Z ft. to 2i] it. in length; lit mi .r—s nt'fplttoriog tithe. to join i'rt-ry individual column together, 11nd at the ground; 2323-1 ,rrirri- era: ticaidl's "Lthi hearers for supporting galleries. 'l'he carpenter undertook to gel- readr within the specified period Eilfi or. les ofsash llar; littering for an area ofi-ll-l millions ot'nuhir ft—at: lit-sides enormous quantities of wooden paling, louvre. work, and partition. rl'III-l lltlIlI-Illlll Willilll 11193 Jasth Paxton. (il'fi'fili’al Palace. Lon-I'lnn. Iii-Ii]. (M enlarged and memeled atfiiydetllmm: 18-52—51} The (it'SLTiIi-fitm vividly t'eni'ejes the meet tellingr aspects of PHXLDFIH Crystal Pelee-e: IZ-i'lt'. met aeule (If the whele. the .3an seele ef its parts. the tlemendeue quantities neeesselie: the eepiteity ef' menufeeturere te turn eut eueh fm'n'ls in virtually iimitieres emeunte. and the entrepreneurial “fumeness to accept finch prntiuetien tiemmitie. tieutliinee. ant] l‘ifikfi. "indeed, with eut even heing' en'eted, this vieiener'}? building. to he eeeemhiee ef 1Il.i|iIHriHI1 :Ihr'ms LIIE-II. [ii.'-1HIII|'|.-'£-‘: inLn Lrannpureney Hnri Hi'IT'iT'Ii-E int” Li'lHrTIHE-ti'r'fiH. writ-tread a [iliignanL Hyn'lhnl uf'Lhe industrial Age. II1 lin‘rrl, Lin-1. Cry-Hal I-‘ula L'l-" uruld rml hH‘u'fi Iii-wen 1mm;l fii1r1pit‘: :1I' direct. yeL He hirilm'ieieing [Nefi'tenee are. ineseepehle: its meduiui‘ layeul. end leueture were a I'efieetinn rii' Liie niedievai be]; 3355- lerrILetnti in exjmmling'e greenhuuee tm-‘ieienary Liimen sirens. the huihlere appear Ln have. lur'ned 1-H LI1H th'mfiL III" Lht‘: Englir—th eulhI-uirHI—H lung. Iliw~ HiltHI'Pri-UH: rnLIILi-Hifileri, Fifipljfili nap-:35- irlg1 illi." w'ILiu'II H Huanewiiut higin—‘r' i1¢1rtHi-v:vlllll_rfii LmrIHHIIL war: irlr-ierLt-ill1t|ir1¢purfu|ru1H H hugfil living le'rl LI'HH. 'Wht-m Lht-a hililtting wan-1 mere-ewe], Hi. Efr'tienharit in Iflii {when-a iL Hifilflri unlii burning in IEITEIHII. H_ HHennti LNIIIHHIJI. WHH ineni'LmrHflHI, giving ir Hver‘l “lure the appearance. {if}: er-erpfirenl, |,.ir11_;|r|r'. HF Ruli—ztiur‘y Cathetl liq-1E. The fialniiisll' IJIILiiJIQ-l uf‘liw huiltliufl, i|.!-i fiti'lluLLLI'HJ HiITIIJIiIHIJ and (“retiring-,4, and Lng mm!“ Henhe- Hi L]u-r. yum-1 EJLIL eiHilnm i]!'ll!l'lL.‘l.][£11.l.ri}-' .‘11. li'Fli-itl. Tl uh-m [tiring-Ii Lhmli with futuristic EHhL:1:'~ Hueh :15 Hit: Ll'una-jpzn'urluly Iii'|.]=_1_: WEJ]lfi glut-I ceiling, Ull- I'llll'fiéllllilriJLi inul-iur] HI' LiHr :-i|.ruL:|.l,:r|:.1 and the iiIIJiLieu-m mpel iiiuri [IririunLieul itlrmfi inltl UH: Heerningly HILEHHHHJ1HHI fHH "rill-z Ieeth. HILL [ht-f.- wmzltl ImLimue. iLH:I.;"I| 2-5” charmed I:_1.: like limiti- int: wiLhuui. mu; fiJeLur nma'u—enim'. In murder in give. LIN-l indie-:- il'izll construe-1.10:1 21 pi'upurly "u FL‘i'Lii-lliti-U rad" “Wei, an urehi Leel. and writer. Uwen Jones-i: was :1ppL:i:ii.eLJ SuperineerItJtmL ul' “ll-‘I III'rrflrlifi-i. HI: devised a eeheuu: u]. enlm'uLJ Elnem'nliun (Jur'ivlni i'mm seeent uduflslenfi it] unlur Utterly, which WEJH Lu pain!- the entire interior with nltemaLlne Fi‘LI‘ifililtw HI' I'Lrti. yulluw, urui [1| IJ::._ seern'uLurl I1}: whit-Lt. Unu' Lin: t'L't])l‘=1.iIiIZ.ll‘I urn] <|1’L:F|HJ) [Ji.i.l'i-J:|:-'~- parent structure was: no w superimermet] eeneLlLinu uml "vet'- The NiIIEEL-tlflfilil Cenlllrfir‘ ll—Hé Interim, Uryfii-LLI. E'uJuee. [Rnyal I'l'lfiti‘hll‘e nl' El-ritifih Ai'ehitertfij lap of hands of eccents of colorr which dissolved the whale into a 'l‘urncmsoue play,r of light and air. tine EDfllflfllpflFflI}" described the dazzling effect with wonder. noting the wag; "all material- ity blends into the atmosphere“ in the building, which gives “no idea of the actual size or distance involved.” concluding that the “intirmprehen sibie and feirylilte” spectacle seemed “Ill JlfitfsummerNignt's Dream. seen in the clear light ot'1niddag.” The tendency to fall hatlt en convention even when working 1s‘ith high-technology constiuction was trident in the second Paris Exposition [ntetnetionele in 1353?, which wes influenced by the traditions of french chlassician IIi'etl'ler than English h'ledievelisioi. The scheme or the exhibition li‘uilnl:lin§.;r (fig. 11-85] was essenLislly the! or the thilosseum—a huge. seal “.59? by Less FeeLi in1egraling hotl: concentric and radial planning. Eeren emotion-it galleries were each given LNG“! and scaled appropriately lo a gimo industry. The lLi‘s-ilerie des Machines, twice the scale of the. others, was logically arranged at the perimeter with its immense llll'illfill'iill machinery, liilltlwed inward liva the galleries exhihiting clothing, Furniture, raw titan-trials, and the line. iii-ls. But the cleverest device1 taken over from the Colosseum, was the radial plan, wherein:r eneh wedgelilce seemr oi' the building was restricted to the seven industries oi" a particular nation. 'i‘hus. in Lhis ooh-ME! do trail-off. order was iii-might in to the chaotic output 1 l-H-5 Eslrihitioo Building. I've-is. IHGT. father Gietliun) -Iti2‘: ot' the industiial age he translating the geometryr of a Classical model into a rational eahihition layout in feat the lie-mans thera- sch’es 1would have emailed]. Cine could proceed either in]; izmlzltlnttl comparing the output of one country to the neat, or more From product to product e green column}: For a moment. the torrent of materiel change was frozen into a seemingly}.r coherent jaitter'n. At the climactic Exposition UEIiTDl'SLdlU of 185:9 in Paris. the Utopian idea of gathering every product of civilizatimi under one roof was abandoned. instead, it was the possibilities latent in high-tetlniologjt construction that new absorbed the. builders- -the prospect of creeting some flitiiristic design that. like a true cathedral, wwltl in its intrinsic character end not lie more size transcend the usual limits tiims or architecture. Simu-rtnrally the. Len-lim' Fair building’s had hell-in fabricated in simple traheatetl or vaulted modes that did not depart from tra- ditional solutions; and they presented what the observer was alreeth.r familiar 1s'it-h in greenhouses. 'ailwanr sheds. and other common high-technology works. l'lnl. in the [$35 exhihil.ion._ two removing-inns assaulted Lhe visitors not only with |.iL:-1Iiir. scale but with radically eds-s need stroeiursl solutions alien to the Lraditiuniel fiJ'rrrial language ol'archiLectgu't-i. The hisli‘n'icisl. veil Lliut lay over the new technology was now pulled away, and 1whet was reveeled in 13553 at the. Gelefie des Machines and the liiii'el Tower was disturbing and deeply moving. The. Galen—in tins Machinlss (fig. 1 l-i‘lh']1 designed li]__‘..' the :n-ehileet {:I'.-l..—]-'. EluLeri in collehoI-sljeo with Footsmio sod several other leading engineers. was one or the most astonishing space-enclose ing higli-ttwl'lnnlugy t'rtgatiuns uILLhe ninEtt—‘ienth century. 't‘he scale of ile unl_11'tii-tr_a'|_. {smut-1| space was l.1'PI1!élltllJl1Fi—l:l-iT-H Feet in length. laid on in height. and. shove ad I. 337'? li—‘eL in width—hle again that. of St. Panm'as' Tu'llt'nl'fly shed. Lil-a4 the! train shed, the lGalerie des l‘lechines 1was nothing but a series or bridge tithes. twenLy ol'1.hern to he exsei, connecietl h; longitudinal girders that supporled [he Fen-neiueoos grid envelope. 'J'wo decades earlier, E-iiliisl hsd slrestlle erected wrought-iron hritlge arches of mnsitl- ert-ihly LIN-LEELLL'I' spun [Er-ll Feet] under more .‘it‘rlunus conditions. [luE scale and t't11lHl-1'I1t2l'lfl1] that seemed ostiu'sl in F! bridge file-amt; mrrn'whnlming when h'r'uught. inlu the! oily. lib; IHHFJ, thiIJli-i had become 1|F—::—'!:’l to such enclosures lhl' railway stations-5 and liiil's. hut. iluLeJ't's hiiiit‘liug was lmf‘illinr' in its struc- lure. 'l'he arches were not oF!.he usual arched-truss oanfignn'atiou :hat hsd Hl'at’illyi-i given the reassuring illusion ofheing iron eer- sions of traditional vaults. Eetoylhing shoot them rwas gmrplex- ing. They seemed iinfaissihly Litin in section. which measured 1! feet in height, hur. only 2H int-hos in Thickness l2] lightness per- milterl hy the use ofsleeli. '1'hi-_y' did not Ihlloer :-lli:'-' usual curl-oi- tui'o. in flirt. th ey hardly.r looked like arches. but rather like twin cantilwer arms tin-ring up and thou reaching diagonally across to hejoined h} pinn-l whom the}.- mot al the apex. llIosL LlimiLtiug were their connections with the. ground: Llie gtr'deis came down Lo a point, which insted in. a little hinged slot in the Iinet-iiieiii. Such hinged joints. which unwind: tl'iei-motle'n-runic expansion and toe- tmction hum creating stmsses, had less". common since ifl'ffl in the. bridges oFEii‘fhl and other nth-enoisl engineers. But Hell-{till}; displayed :11. Lhe. l'uot o['n gigantic arthilectun-il interior made it all the more. tiistur'hiug. Finally. nothing was what it should be and even [utilise-lineal huildors were dismayed: “'I‘his lack ol'prc- portion produces. a had rill-ct; the. girder not iii-dented; it has no hose. .. .it starts 1th] low. . . . Thceye is noL measured. . . .'[‘he. sup- ports are too sandy." BuL ol'iaiurse a lleiiienesque huilder woidd 'I'Illl ll-Iilllli-Ilihl Willtldl have hatl sinlilt—Lr wertis l'er .itniens Cathedral—ens can imagine theln: "tne thin, the high, he apparent huttressing. the eye is nut reassure-:1.” As [11. Atniens, the efi'eet ni‘the Gain rie ties Machine-.5 was unearthly. It seemed tn tear the t—‘isitnrs Frnm their lite-Lilia:- werld unit transpert them inte a strange 37th: wentlerfni rlnznain. In the (islet-1e ties Machines. the glint}; train shed was trans- i'ertnett iltte e bright i'uturistic int-age tit" industrial premise. 'l'his visien was achieved net eni}r h}! the term ni‘the huilrling hut else by its centents. The interier wnsjetnmeri sn fluil nritttaeltinely of every sert- thttt an elevated truiniike unit. 'sntinn was ties-inert Ln entry the bewildered visitnr tin'eusfltI accemntts'iaring as many as HELUHU speeteters it thus Yezu's alter having this tether-timer: as a Child. the .‘i-‘itajernist seuiptnr liayinentl Duchamp-filler: Hunt-tin- htt'fil ii. as “e hullueimttetjr passage titre-ugh the lnifrlttntss nfths have in n travelling bridge. she-re whirlneels ni‘i:'.-.Iisti|tr,__-:rt-p1:ilenn hells, ere skings. sirens. anti his-ck swerns cur-tanning circles, pyr- amids. and sub-es.” The (.iulerie ties Machine»: was essentially an iitLerier, its elisturlsitt},r eti'eets restricted Le this-'4: with were tr-an- pflrm'ily enciesett h}: it. The Hillel 'ihwet'lctilerula1e 83}. set up in MET-iii] en the bunks til the Seine ltirer at the tiilil'iil'it'l! tn the this was ewe mere treuhling. Itnt nnijr in its Wtilt‘fl. unmet-e- flellmfl eenligurutien tutti its supertnntntnientsl Hfléiiti—ili. sun metel's being nearly: twice the height ef any met-lees eesstree- Linn—hut because it eeuld he seen J'rntr. eJI ever the ant-.ient city. We am: se titmilitu' 1.s'ith its lin'in that We run hurtiljr rtsstnture its eriginflJ eli'ect. i'n'lutlelnists have seerneti the euLt-ry .' tstinst it, especially the l'umeus letter el'pret'est hjr lentiins.r cultural fit-nuts: “Wit. the writer's, painters. sculptnrs. anti architect-s tllir'ltl.‘ in the name el'l1‘reneh getsl taste and of this menace Le Fntnch htsimjtr tn express eur tteep indignatien that there shnultl stand in the heart Ill'mn' [lspitul this unnecessary anti intittstreus 'Thnr Fiti'l‘el.” But. the letter wesjnstifleti. iht' tlte tnwer tries the aurtrttttszt afii-enl net Duty 1“ the architecture ei' Paris. but nise tn the eye el" the Parisian. I'nr whet-1 its structural ltJElC anti rernluLJnnnrjr iltlh'r thctic inngunge were incentprehensihie. lflssentielly, the structure [if the L'iit'iel 'ihs'er—which was r. liar- rnnging nxtrsnelntien et' Eifl'el’s spiders wrnughL-imn hriilge pfi'lDEiS—Cflillti net have been mere simple: l'eur innnense, tatter- Lng. curred. initial-girder piers that meet usjntuuitically. These piers. rise li'nru un immenseh; bread square haste—12:") :ne1ers en a side—and are laced LULWU'IUT at the levels h}; entnlectintt girders to term an inteng unity er" great stability. But the structure imM-ri unstable in the t‘listnlieting manner t-lntt the arches nl'tite Gaierie tins Mneiiinte [eeiteti unstable. {The lightness ul'Lite tin-wer- is legend: ‘1 sn flirilr sptm UUL is the metal that a true scale utetle] tine fit-fit high weuhl weigh ene-t'eurth el'en eutteeih‘iltheush iLtiiti net rise niffE-ifll‘inuiily I'min points. it. was ittrsterieus enough and far mere threatening, iitr' il' it shenltl full! . . . Te quell such tlitt: misgivings. visually stah'thsi rig. flt‘ttnr'ntiru il'nnn'urit was added— tht‘ pmi‘fl—r‘tl't Neurenu l'riilwerlt uf'tlte piutfnrms [1mnnredin the [930s3 and the neur‘unetinnsl areltes tn. the base. These elements. in pnrtit‘ulttr the archer-5. served in dissuade the puhlie from its fears aheul. the buildings structural snlidity ttTld else managed re give it :1 desperately needed imliegrnphit' ulntent te 1which tine ceulri sninehew relate. 'i'he Eitthl 'l'ewer hitlnti tit. the entrance tn the linirgl'nuluis. where tin arch tradi- liensi Ir helenttt'd: The feur arches amend its Lets-e. tegetlter with the first platform as '“trahentienf' were seen to film] a titanic ‘ilriuninhal arch as striking as these whieh earlitu' generuthms have raised is hener {‘DflflLLEE'DI'F-i" [:1 reference to Hupnlt'en's The Nineteenth ('enutry I I -i'l'li {Erin-ii. “uteri. Galerie ties Machines. Paris. iii-Fill hiEit/ctltissiet-‘Ii al'eh :Jttrnsa-t the hie-tine]. Tint must. revealing shunt the mentality hi the psi-ind was the we}: net ean the base but illstt the “their turner mils Her-tn as 1-: vi siting-111; arch [nut unlike. the slmI-s-ln-shnrs "arched" leap n!' the fireeltijm Bridget It was r'ltlLIEti i.l'l:-!|. "the Eiffel 'l'nwer rising li'trrrt ils iiiur i1'un piers fin-ms Lht‘. Firth ni'the triumph I'Jr memes anti iridttst.r'_t'."'l‘l1i5s art-it image tilt] Tint [its-sum tin-1. usunl (:tu't'nI.ur1-‘-., gel slill il. litrlnrsri Hn t—L'r'tll'l. like the [th tilt-Ln tiger-1. [liver—rune ltTlE'W l.Iu_—' wurl-t 'its a tower— Lri 'irirtu‘ E'r'fliri. Le ".I'iirsr'rt'e 'l‘r'nis' (lent! twee—Elm. nrJ LIN-tn" htttl ever'ietiitt-si r'ernnieljr liltt-l it.I nur did a tower helnngin that place. Thus. in an ultnusl. surrmlist IIJHTlr‘IIi-‘T': li'lF! eye til" the perinri. tinting irI desperatinn. iri—tnsliu'int—tti the huilriingr int" '.-:n nreh- lllhilitE-iill'r'i'l-Iilr-H-LIII'NET. Even :-].s theI qutiers til‘higit-[t—!cl1t1ult13‘:,r cnnstt'utdimt Wen: liil'tilr'ljc': :-Jr1:h ir.t-et:1.l.u't-! i-IZI |I1|II‘."P' hey-(Ind 1.l‘|+' lirnil 2-' til the ut:lt:t'l‘..it: t‘isiurt, insertiristu mnrntg‘etl in a Iit-t:--'»['H-.Lr':-t1r-r gesture in ship. litr :-I nether irlsl.unl.. l.l!|[-'! wheels iiFHE—‘efiljll—‘eiir chi-tugs. Thul. the [:Illtitr'nl I's1.:-thli.-:hnu-Iur lI.-ni Wilnit-Efl [ti slnp Lin-I whirlt: Ett'riitstt i-tl‘lMH'I-fii'lt-‘il' Elli-II? inwe ri-‘iirth-ltl line l'url l1FeII'J-lriil-Htli til. the Tunes; 21 thit'lt aspect that t'tlre-il.il utt-Itl .-u| HL'PIL tiHHIJI-El' tlu'ttttt thnr‘l tl‘u‘: tif'lt‘ tn visual i.l'Eltiil.llJll:—' ntltl tit'ili-lr‘lir-i'lit' lulr— innny. Eli .l'S TI'I'LK’LEr' t'tist: impiltlentljr liu' nit-urn till the r'eiigitlus ill'lti {iyttttstie hlliiiiinur whiten-1 intn‘nlgrrinllies anti styles hurl heen fliifllitt‘tl it]; tin: ruling lniltl'gt-Hiisit-t; WUFH-t. its mist-muted ci_'.-'t*-ii.-l:_"li |i|ltlitl"r'itl.l?l'i-I cnrr'itsl littlle lens ul'1.itt:uz—::—1t|tis tilitlr'liirn-tr'y H'C'i'iiliifl'rtiiih‘iti Fill‘lril-ill'lfi Lu :1 Viewpninl. itigil shun-5 everything. Fer the tiut'iLLintt ui' Lilei r useur'siuu. T‘s riis, ritl nets-Willy Ht‘.'i-J,'__'.E-‘:li lth sncialist revulutien. In); 21L their fleet. I'l‘he i'u'..tu'i:-il it: speeter' el'this E_'!.’J.tll::I-:Jlit' seein] Lr'iuttitth i.er 'Thwtri' us it I1:rititttittrtir[i1t: esplesive Ii'rrces t'Il't:hi1u_ut1 nuii enriul :u't'sciur'rr-i Trent “lll‘ifl'fi'F— ltlnj’ lla‘t-‘E' been the ultiinnte enus-t: ul'l-hl.‘ tiiluielsjf irttiiuitnljtltl til' the estnhlishlnenz: Lht: Tlil'wt‘li' wan-i tilt: new inlrt "settlLt-ttl rill" tlrlrt _.see.et'r.= efnjneteenth renters Paris. -I list ...
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