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VEN 3 Class Notes - VEN 3 Class Notes Lecture 1/23 Red Wine...

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VEN 3 Class NotesLecture 1/23Red Wine VinificationWinemaking Decisions-Winemaking is a series of small and large decisions-Decision to harvest is the most importantThe Decision to Harvest-Factors-Is the fruit ready?-To know this, have to sample the berries...-Vineyard sampling-Sugar-Refractometer, hydrometer-Refractometer →-Hydrometer → measures the sugar in thegrape juice-Acidity-Titration-Flavor-Human being-Also determined by the style of wine-Each wine has a different alcohol concentration-Decision to harvest also affected by weather and climatepatterns in the region it was grown.-Berry Ripening-Sugar increases, acid decreases-Veraison occurs 90 days after harvest? (check on that)-When it is time to harvest…-The sugar must be high enough-Acid must not be too low-Both levels must be perfect for the specific variety of wine (brix= percentage of sugar in the wine)-Red wines: 20-24 brix-White wines: 19-23 brix-Blush wines (rosé): 19-23 brix-Rosé is just white wine made with red grapes-Sparkling wines: 18-20 brixSorting-Why?-To remove allMOG (matter other than grapes)-Field mice, plants, leaves
-Also want to remove over-ripe or unripe or unhealthy/sick berries-How?
-Why?
-How?
Crushing Choices-a. Crushing and destemming-b. Destemming only-Ferment whole berries-Common in bordeaux-c. whole clusters-Direct to press (white)-Literally just press all the clusters directly and only collect thejuice, no skins, no seeds, nada-Carbonic maceration (red)-MUST is the product of crushing-80% juice, 16% skins, 4% seedsWinemaking Decisions Recap-Destem?-Whole berries?-Mixture?-Whole clusters?SO2 addition-Why?-Antimicrobial-Kills wild yeast and other contaminants-Antioxidant-Prevents browning caused by polyphenol oxidase (PPO)-“Contains sulfites”-Required on the label by law if SO2 > 10ppm-Wine still contains sulfites even if SO2 is not added-SO2 is also a natural… something on slideshowOrganic Wines and SO2 (sometimes called “natural wines”-USA Rules: SO2 allowed in wine labeled “made with organic grapes” if total
sulfite concentration does not exceed 100 ppm-European Rules: white and rosé wine labelled org-SLIDESHOWMUST adjustments-Sugar enrichment (in the case of a rainy/cloudy summer → not enoughsunlight therefore not enough sugar)-Chaptalization -sugar addition to raise potential alcohol of wine-Not legal in California-Juice concentrate-Is legal in california-Acid adjustment-Common in California and other sunny, hot places where sugar is highand acid is low at harvest-Solution is to addTartaric Acid-Water?

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