Biological Psychology Exam 3 review

Biological Psychology Exam 3 review - Introduction to...

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Introduction to Biological Psychology Exam 3 – Study Guide Chapter 10: Movement Muscles and Lower Motor Neurons Be familiar with the 3 types of muscles (lecture) 1) Smooth Muscles: -not under voluntary control, controlled by the autonomic nervous system -found in the walls of blood vessels, gastrointestinal organs, bladder, uterus, lungs, eyes 2) Striated Muscle- Cardiac Muscles: -not under voluntary control -controlled by the autonomic nervous system 3) Striated Muscle- Skeletal Muscle -under voluntary control -consist of muscle fibers that are innervated by a single axon branch from the CNS Understand the process of muscle innervation (lecture) 1) Action potential in motor neuron 2) ACh binds to receptors on muscle causing influx of Na+ at motor endplate 3) Action potential is generated in muscle fiber 4) Action potential leads to opening of Ca+ channels (binding occurs at nicotinic receptor) and influx of Ca+ occurs 5) Ca+ influx of movement of muscle filaments (via binding of calcium to triponin) 6) Myosin binds to actin 7) Bending of myosin pulls actin filaments together leading to contraction 8) Hyperpolarization leads to unbinding and relaxation Know the organization of the motor neurons in the spinal cord - lower motor neurons are located within the ventral horn of the spinal cord -axons bundle together to form the ventral root which joins with the dorsal root to form a spinal nerve -the ventral horn is larger in regions that contain neurons that control a large number of muscles -neurons innervating axial muscles are medial to those innervating distal muscles -two type of motor neurons -alpha motor neurons (1 motor unit= 1 alpha motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates) -gamma neurons (involved in proprioception- awareness of spatial representation) Know about fast and slow motor units (lecture) Fast Motor Units: contain few mitochondria, mainly anaerobic, fatigue rapidly Slow Motor Units: contain many mitochondria and fatigue more slowly Propioception and Reflex Control of Movement Know the functions of the golgi tendon organs and the muscle spindles Golgi Tendon Organs: detect force exerted by the muscle Muscle Spindles: detects stretch Understand the myotatic reflex 1) Muscle spindle stretches 2) Neuron is excited, message set via ventral root to alpha motor neuron 3) Alpha neuron fires, compensates 4) Contraction occurs
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Understand the reverse myotatic reflex 1) Golgi tendon organ neurons are excited 2) Excitatory message sent to interneuron 3) Interneuron inhibits motor neuron 4) Stops firing, stops contracting muscle 5) Muscle relaxes 6) Sets off stretch detector, sends excitatory message back to motor neuron 7) Contraction Understand the antagonist functioning of muscles Ex. Thumb tack and finger 1) Thumb tack produces a burst of firing in sensory neurons 2) Firing in the sensory neurons excites excitatory spinal internerneurons that excite bicep motor neurons
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This note was uploaded on 03/28/2008 for the course PSYCH taught by Professor Head during the Fall '08 term at Washington University in St. Louis.

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Biological Psychology Exam 3 review - Introduction to...

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