Biology 2970 Templeton Exam 1 Review Concepts

Biology 2970 Templeton Exam 1 Review Concepts - Biology...

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Biology 2970 Templeton Exam 1 Review: Conceptual: Lecture Set 1: Physical Basis of Evolution 1) DNA can replicate 2) DNA can mutate and recombine 3) DNA encodes information that interacts with the environment to influence phenotype -We encode DNA, not phenotypes Identity by Descent Some alleles are identical because they are replicated descendents of a single ancestral allele -The existence of genes in space and time is manifest only at the level of a reproducing population and provides spatial/temporal continuity necessary for evolution Deme a local population of reproducing individuals that has physical continuity over time and space; and is the lowest biological level that can evolve Evolution the fate of alternative forms of genes or gene combinations over space and time in a reproducing population (deme to species) -can never be understood in terms of individuals alone Mutation -occurs at the molecular level before the informational content of DNA is expressed -is “random” with respect to the needs of the individual in coping with its environment -is amplified by diploidy Variation comes from: 1) Sexual Reproduction 2) Recombination 3) Genetic variation Gene Pool Form 1: a population of gene copies that are collectively shared by the individuals of a deme Form 2: the population of potential gametes that can be produced by the individuals of a deme -more useful in evolutionary theory because gametes are the bridge from one generation to the next -You cannot predict the deme (genetype frequencies) from the gene pool (allele frequencies) -example, similar gene pool, but the deme either has 1) only homozygotes or 2) with heterozygotes present -to go from gametes to deme, you need to specify the rules by which the gametes unite (fertilization) System of Mating the rules at the level of the deme by which gametes are united in fertilization, thereby defining the transition from haploidy to diploidy
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Random Mating both of the gametes united in a zygote are drawn at random and independently from the gene pool Hardy-Weinberg Genotype Frequencies -H-W implies that Mendelian Traits are not expected to show Mendelian ratios in demes -Mendelian ratios are geared for families, not for populations -One generation of random mating insures H-W genotype frequencies Evolution Revisited -Evolution at the deme level a change in allele or gamete frequencies in the gene pool Lecture Set 2: Coronary Artery Disease -no single factor, genetic or environmental, is either necessary or sufficient for CAD Complexity and Causation in complex systems, no one factor is both necessary and sufficient, and many factors are neither necessary nor sufficient
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Biology 2970 Templeton Exam 1 Review Concepts - Biology...

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