Week 2_ 1_17_Kohli, Pizarro, & Nevarez (2017) The New Racism of K-12

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182Review of Research in EducationMarch 2017, Vol. 41, pp. 182–202DOI: 10.3102/0091732X16686949© 2017 AERA. Chapter 8The “New Racism” of K–12Schools: Centering CriticalResearch on RacismRITAKOHLIUniversity of California, RiversideMARCOSPIZARROSan José State UniversityARTURONEVÁREZUniversity of California, RiversideWhile organizing efforts by movements such as Black Lives Matter and responses to thehate-filled policies and rhetoric of President Donald Trump are heightening publicdiscourse of racism, much less attention is paid to mechanisms of racial oppressionin the field of education. Instead, conceptualizations that allude to racial differencebut are disconnected from structural analyses continue to prevail in K–12 educationresearch. In this chapter, our goal is to challenge racism-neutral and racism-evasiveapproaches to studying racial disparities by centering current research that makesvisible the normalized facets of racism in K–12 schools. After narrowing over 4,000articles that study racial inequity in education research, we reviewed a total of 186U.S.-focused research studies in a K–12 school context that examine racism. As wecategorized the literature, we built on a theory of the “new racism”—a more covertand hidden racism than that of the past—and grouped the articles into two mainsections: (1) research that brings to light racism’s permanence and significance in thelives of students of Color through manifestations of what we conceptualize as (a) evadedracism, (b) “antiracist” racism, and (c) everyday racism and (2) research focused onconfronting racism through racial literacy and the resistance of communities of Color.In our conclusion, we articulate suggestions for future directions in education researchthat include a more direct acknowledgement of racism as we attend to the experiencesand needs of K–12 students of Color.686949RREXXX10.3102/0091732X16686949Review of Research in EducationKohli et al.: The “New Racism” of K–12 Schoolsresearch-article2017
Kohli et al.: The “New Racism” of K–12 Schools183In October 2015, a video of a police officer slamming a young Black1girl to theground in a South Carolina high school classroom as a method of discipline wentviral (Dana Ford, Botelho, & Conlon, 2015). Part of a larger national conversationof anti-Blackness (Cullors, Garza, & Tometi, 2015), this incident brought to lightcurrent manifestations of racism—overt and subtle—that have been part of schoolssince the inception of the U.S. educational system (Spring, 1994). While organizingefforts by movements such as Black Lives Matter and responses to the hate-filledpresidential campaign of Donald Trump are heightening public discourse of racism,in the field of education much less attention is paid to mechanisms of racial oppres-sion. Instead, conceptualizations that allude to racial difference but are disconnectedfrom structural analyses prevail (May & Sleeter, 2010; Patel, 2015). In a recent search

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