Digestive System.docx - The Digestive System Functions...

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The Digestive System Functions Take in food Break it down into ____________________ molecules into the bloodstream Rid body of any indigestible remains General Divisions 1. __________________________________________________________________ Continuous _______________________ tube that runs from the mouth to anus _____________________________: breaks down into smaller fragments Absorbs fragments through lining into ____________________________ ___________________________: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus 2. __________________________________________________________________ ____________________ Tongue _____________________________ Digestive _____________________: produce secretions that help break down foodstuffs o __________________________________ o __________________________________ o __________________________________ Digestive Processes Processing of food involves six essential activities: 1. ______________________ : eating 2. ______________________ : movement of food through the alimentary canal, which includes: _____________________
______________________: major means of propulsion of food that involves alternating waves of contraction and relaxation 3. ________________________________________ : includes chewing, mixing food with saliva, churning food in stomach, and segmentation ______________________ : local constriction of intestine that mixes food with digestive juices 4. ______________________ : series of catabolic steps that involves enzymes that break down complex food molecules into chemical building blocks 5. ______________________ : passage of digested fragments from lumen of GI tract into blood or lymph 6. ______________________ : elimination of indigestible substances via anus in form of feces Relationship of Digestive Organs to Peritoneum ______________________: serous membranes of abdominal cavity that consists of: ___________________ peritoneum: membrane on external surface of most digestive organs ____________________ peritoneum: membrane that lines body wall Peritoneal cavity ___________________________ space between two peritoneums Fluid lubricates mobile organs ______________________ : double layer of peritoneum; layers are fused back to back Extends from body wall to digestive organs Provides routes for blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves Holds organs in place and also stores ______________ ______________________________ (peritoneal) organs : organs that are located within the peritoneum ______________________________ organs : located outside, or posterior to the peritoneum Includes most of pancreas, duodenum, and parts of large intestine Homeostatic Imbalance ______________________ ________________________ of peritoneum
Can be caused by piercing abdominal wound, perforating ulcer, or ruptured appendix Peritoneal coverings stick together, which helps ____________________ infection Dangerous and lethal if it becomes widespread Treatment: debris removal and megadoses of _________________________ Histology of the Alimentary Canal 1. ______________________ Tunic layer that lines lumen Functions: different layers perform one or all three o Secretes ______________________, ______________________________, and ______________________ o ______________________ end products of digestion o ______________________ against infectious disease Made up of three sublayers o ______________________ o Lamina propria o ______________________ 2. ______________________ Consists of areolar connective tissue Contains ______________________________________, lymphoid follicles, and submucosal nerve plexus that supply surrounding GI tract tissues Has abundant amount of _______________ tissues that help organs to regain shape after storing large meal 3. _____________________________________ ________________ layer responsible for segmentation and peristalsis Contains inner ___________________________ muscle layer and outer ____________________________ layers Circular layer thickens in some areas to form ______________________ 4. ______________________
_______________________ layer, which is made up of the visceral peritoneum Formed from areolar connective tissue covered with ______________________ (single layer of squamous epithelium) in most organs Functional Anatomy of the Digestive System The Mouth

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