World Civilizations Notes.docx - Lecture 1 What is History...

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World Civilizations Notes Lecture 1: What is History 1) The story of the past: History is a collection of stories and fables of the past. 2) The study of the past: History is the academic discipline of the stories of the past. Three Core components I) Historic Record (Tangible Evidence, Proof, Examples) II) Historic Methodology (Analysis, Modeling, Demographic analysis, historiography, Periodization) III) Historical Perspective (Perspective/Understanding/P.O.V, “Those that do not learn from history are doomed to repeat it.”, History is not the accumulation of facts but rather the cultivation of comprehension and understanding, In order to be prepared for the future we must understand how we got to where we are 3) Source of perspective: History = Change Time Cultural Amalgamation- A culture that is super blended Our numbers are Arabic Numeration: 1,2,3 Our Letters are Phoenician Vowels are Greek Vikings day – Thursday (Thor’s day) Monday (Odin’s day) January and February were added months hence October should be the 8 th month and 10 th month should be December Hedy Lamarr- Actress 1913-2000
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Lecture 2: History and the Prehistoric Era The agricultural revolution is the cause of civilization. History is: 1. Story of the past: Limitations 2. Study of the past: Components 3. Source of perspective 4. World Civilizations: 5,000+ years of history 5. What is a civilization, and how do we study them? 6. Prehistoric era and early civilizations. The Prehistoric Era: 1) Prehistoric Era: Time before the development of written records. 2) Longest and least understood period of human history 3) Geologic Time: 4.5 billion years 4) Hominids: 4 million years 5) Anatomically modern humans: 200,000 years 6) Written Records: 5,000 years Prehistoric Society: 1) Tribal 2) Political Organization: Egalitarian- High degree of equality 3) Economic Structure: Hunter/Gatherer 4) Nomadic 5) Matrilineal- Family follows mother’s family 6) Competition for limited resources between tribes Prehistoric Culture: 1) Culture preserved through oral tradition 2) Origin of prehistoric religion= explanations for the unknown 3) Animism – belief that everything has a spirit 4) Shaman- Individual that understands the spirits 5) Development of tool making techniques 6) Primitive?
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The Agricultural Revolution 1. Most significant event in human history 2. Changes everything 3. More food 4. Less nutritional 5. Transition to sedentary lifestyle 6. Catalyst for early river valley civilizations 7. Changes in society, culture, and life Changes 1. Nomadic/Tribal= Sedentary 2. Egalitarian= gives social hierarchy’s 3. Hunter/Gatherer= agriculture then trade 4. Matrilineal= Patrilineal 5. Conflict= fighting new type of resources (Gold, silver, etc.) 6. Culture= Language, arts, etc. grow and begin to be written down. 7. Impact= Civilization Timeline 1) Farming Communities (8,000 B.C.E) 2) City States (3-5 KYA) 3) Mesopotamia (3,500 B.C.E) 4) Egypt (3,000 B.C.E) 5) Indus River Valley (2,500 B.C.E) 6) China (2,000 B.C.E) 7) The Americans (1,000 B.C.E) Characteristics of a Civilization 1) Society: Group of people with a shared Identity 2) Culture: Language, religion, arts
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