# Name_Annie Karjo_Class_HLT 362V Date Exercise 16 1 The...

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Name: ___ Annie Karjo _________________Class: __ HLT - 362V _____________ Date:___ 1/27/2019 ___________________________________________________ Exercise 16 1. The number of degrees of freedom is the number of values in the final calculation of a statistic that are free to vary. Other words, you can also think of it as the number of values that are free to vary as you estimate parameters. Typically, the degrees of freedom equal your sample size minus the number of parameters you need to calculate during an analysis. It’s important because the df defines the shape of the t- distribution that your t-test use to calculate the p value. Df = (88+88) -2 = 176 - 2 = 174. Therefore, df is 174 2. Mean = Buzzy 8.25, Control 8.61 SD = Buzzy 1.51, Control 1.69 The statistical analysis that was used to determine the difference in means for age for the two groups was Independent sample t-test. Yes it’s appropriate because independent samples t-test is a parametric statistical technique used to determine significant differences between the scores obtained from two samples or groups. 3. t-value of age is -1.498, p-value of age is .136. The level of significance for this study was set at α = 0.05, and since p value was higher than 0.05. That indicated there is no significant difference in the two age groups. 4. The assumptions for conducting the independent samples t -test are: a. The raw scores in the population are normally distributed. b. The dependent variable(s) is(are) measured at the interval or ratio levels. c. The two groups examined for differences have equal variance, which is best achieved by a random sample and random assignment to groups.

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d. All scores or observations collected within each group are independent or not related to other study scores or observations 5. Groups are independent because the two sets of data were not taken from the same subjects and the scores are not related. They do no overlap into each group. 6. The null hypothesis is: There is no difference in procedural self- reported pain measured with the Wong Baker Faces Scale (WBFS) between the Buzzy intervention and the control groups for school-age children. The t = −6.498 for Procedural self-reported pain with WBFS, p = 0.000, which is less than α = 0.05 set for this study. Since this study
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• Spring '16
• Statistics, Statistical significance, Student's t-test, Ashok

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