PSYC 21301.09.2018HISTORICAL OVERVIEW1.PHILOSOPHICAL ROOTSPlato: first early philosopher to look at the human mind•use of logic to understand the world•“reflection of reality”→RATIONALISM: knowledge comes from observation, but is also a priori, meaning there is in innate nature of our minds• influences current theory development in cognitionAristotle: combined philosophical and scientific approaches to thinking→EMPIRICISM: All knowledge comes from experience and observation•“tabula rasa” = blank slate, the mind is a blank canvas before we experience the world and form associations from our observations. •influences experimental methodThese relates to prominent arguments of today, like nature vs. nurture2.STRUCTUALISM Analytic Introspection: focused on identifying the basic building blocks of the conscious experienceWilhlelm Wundt: Introspection, we should pay attention to our own mindEdward Titchener: empiricist, concerned with immediate xp.Systematic and controlled observation is important here, HOW the mind works. 3.FUNCTIONALISMWHY the mind works. William James: took pragmatic approach to cognition, he promoted experimentation, was interesting in consciousness on the whole (not breaking it down into separate parts)Emphasis on functions, applications, etc. 4.BEHAVIOURISMShifted the focus from mind to behaviour. •we can ctrl the outside the environment, so we should focus on that•animal research — Skinner’s operant conditioning•rigorous experimentationof 159Downloaded by Sana Bansal ([email protected])
01.11.2018The Cognitive Revolution: Acceptance of internal mental states, use of rigorous scientific study, classic models of info processing•addresses problems with behaviourism, like the complexity of human activity not adequately explained (language problem)•began 1950s/60s1970s: rise of computer metaphor1980s: Cognitive neuroscience, study of those with brain damage. THE CLASSIC VIEWNot one theory, but a view. Main ideais that world contains info for us to store and process. Focus is on these processes. ASSUMPTIONS1.Mind is a processing system that performs a series of specific computations (like apps on a phone) 2.Mind is like computer in that it runs process is sequential steps, each step in sequence changes immediate predecessor 3.Takes time and resources1.limits amt of info mind can process at one time2.this means time taken can indicate resources used. This has been pivotal in the studyBasic unit of info: Bit (= binary digit)•allows us to make predictions about the function of info in the environment Information Theory: function of information is to reduce uncertainty•amt of info provided in message is inversely related to probability of occurrence•less likely the event, the more info it contains•connection to PSYC 215: discounting and augmenting principle — behaviours that are less common/likely for the situation provide more information about the person than what is socially expected.