psyc 213 notes.pdf - 1 of 59 Shifted the focus from mind to behaviour \u2022 we can ctrl the outside the environment so we should focus on that \u2022 animal

psyc 213 notes.pdf - 1 of 59 Shifted the focus from mind to...

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PSYC 213 01.09.2018 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW 1. PHILOSOPHICAL ROOTS Plato: first early philosopher to look at the human mind use of logic to understand the world “reflection of reality” RATIONALISM: knowledge comes from observation, but is also a priori , meaning there is in innate nature of our minds • influences current theory development in cognition Aristotle: combined philosophical and scientific approaches to thinking EMPIRICISM: All knowledge comes from experience and observation “tabula rasa” = blank slate, the mind is a blank canvas before we experience the world and form associations from our observations. influences experimental method These relates to prominent arguments of today, like nature vs. nurture 2. STRUCTUALISM Analytic Introspection: focused on identifying the basic building blocks of the conscious experience Wilhlelm Wundt: Introspection, we should pay attention to our own mind Edward Titchener: empiricist, concerned with immediate xp. Systematic and controlled observation is important here, HOW the mind works. 3. FUNCTIONALISM WHY the mind works. William James: took pragmatic approach to cognition, he promoted experimentation, was interesting in consciousness on the whole (not breaking it down into separate parts) Emphasis on functions, applications, etc. 4. BEHAVIOURISM Shifted the focus from mind to behaviour. we can ctrl the outside the environment, so we should focus on that animal research — Skinner’s operant conditioning rigorous experimentation of 1 59 Downloaded by Sana Bansal ([email protected])
01.11.2018 The Cognitive Revolution: Acceptance of internal mental states, use of rigorous scientific study, classic models of info processing addresses problems with behaviourism, like the complexity of human activity not adequately explained (language problem) began 1950s/60s 1970s : rise of computer metaphor 1980s : Cognitive neuroscience, study of those with brain damage. THE CLASSIC VIEW Not one theory, but a view. Main idea is that world contains info for us to store and process. Focus is on these processes. ASSUMPTIONS 1. Mind is a processing system that performs a series of specific computations (like apps on a phone) 2. Mind is like computer in that it runs process is sequential steps, each step in sequence changes immediate predecessor 3. Takes time and resources 1. limits amt of info mind can process at one time 2. this means time taken can indicate resources used. This has been pivotal in the study Basic unit of info: Bit (= binary digit) allows us to make predictions about the function of info in the environment Information Theory: function of information is to reduce uncertainty amt of info provided in message is inversely related to probability of occurrence less likely the event, the more info it contains connection to PSYC 215 : discounting and augmenting principle — behaviours that are less common/likely for the situation provide more information about the person than what is socially expected.

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