1 BURNS NURN 236 FALL 2013 C JAMARIS-STAUTS RISK FACTORS Young children and the elderly; especially thermal burns Electrical appliances Cooking, scald injuries, grease Work related injuries Inhaled injury LIFESPAN CONSIDERATIONS Gerontologic Considerations include •reduced mobility •changes in vision •decreased sensation in the feet and hands •scald and flames that the elderly have difficulty extinguishing •chronic illness in the elderly HEALTH PROMOTION Burn Prevention in the community: •matches, lighters and candles •never leave children alone •smoke detectors •home fire drills •water temperature •no smoking in bed •flammable liquids •electrical wires •have a fire extinguisher at home Burn Prevention Foundation Most burns are preventable. Individual responsibility, education, and behavior modification awareness. SKIN-REVIEW Layers Functional elements
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2 Anatomy Epidermis Dermis •Nerve endings •Blood vessels •Hair follicles •Sebaceous glands •Sweat glands Subcutaneous •Adipose Functional Elements •Protection •Temperature regulation •Fluid regulation •Sensory reception FUNCTIONS LOST •Temperature regulation •Sweat and sebaceous gland function •Sensory function •Metabolism increases to maintain body heat Eyes Especially sensitive •Cornea •Sclera •Eye lashes •Eye lids •Eye brows Airway Burns •Heat burns the airway tissue, nasal hair •Swelling due to burns in the upper airway can be fatal •Swelling of the vocal cords can obstruct the airway completely •Patient may need to be intubated •Look for appearance of sputum, wheezing hoarseness •Carbon monoxide inhalation: airway edema sloughing of respiratory tract mucosa, pink or cherry red skin ETIOLOGY OF BURN INJURY Thermal Burns •Scald •Contact •Flame •Steam Chemical Burns Electrical Burns Radiation Burns