Multiple Sclerosis STUFall 2015.pdf - Multiple Sclerosis...

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10/30/2015 1 Multiple Sclerosis NURN 236 Nursing Concepts IIII Multiple Sclerosis Myelin not only protects nerve fibers, but makes their job possible. When myelin is destroyed or damaged the ability of the nerves to conduct electrical Impulses to and from the brain are disrupted. This produces the various symptoms of MS. 2 The Pathophysiology of MS MS MS is an autoimmune process. Sensitized T and B lymphocytes cross the blood-brain barrier to check the CNS for antigens. Usually, their function is to check the CNS for antigens and then leave. In MS, the T cells remain in the CNS and promote the entrance of other agents that damage the immune system. The immune system attack leads to inflammation that destroys myelin. 4 Multiple Sclerosis Myelin is lost in multiple areas leaving scar tissue called sclerosis. These damaged areas are also known as plaques or lesions. Often the nerve fiber itself is damaged or broken. 5 Symptoms of MS S&S are variable, depending on the location and combination of lesions. Commonly reported: Fatigue Depression Weakness Numbness Difficulty with coordination Pain Double or blurred vision Patchy or total blindness Spasticity Ataxia
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10/30/2015 2 Diagnosis of MS Clinical symptoms LP CSF shows increase in protein & bonds of IgG bonded together. Lesions may be visible on MRI Urodynamic studies Evoked potential studies 7 Neuro Emotional Lability Scanning Speech ?Impaired Judgment Sensory Blurred vision Numbness/paresthesias Diminished sense of temperature Urinary Retention or incontinence Infections GI Dysphagia Bowel incont. Or constipation Musculoskeletal Fatigue Weakness Ataxic movement Spasticity Foot drop Reproductive Loss of sensation Male: impotence 8
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