Cancer Diagnostics.docx - Cancer Diagnostics Laboratory...

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Cancer Diagnostics Laboratory tests, Radiographic tests, Biopsy, Bone Marrow Aspiration Lab Tests affected by CA: o Platelets: Normal range Thrombocytopenia(low) Below Mild Moderate Severe WBC: Leukopenia (low) – Neutrophils Neutropenia (low) Tumor markers PSA – prostate-specific antigen CEA – carcinoembryonic antigen CA-125 antigen Genomics Proteomics Biopsy o Purpose :The removal of a sample tissue to identify a suspicious mass through histologic or cytologic analysis. o Techniques: Needle biopsy Surgical biopsy Excisional Incisional Endoscopic Bone marrow aspiration Radiographic Tests o CT Scans – computed tomography o MRI – magnetic resonance imaging o X-ray o Bone scans o PET scans – positron emission tomography o Mammography o Fluoroscopy o Other Diagnostic Tests Bronchoscopy Colonoscopy Endoscopy Electroencephalogram (EEG) Goals of Cancer Treatment o Cure the cancer Control its spread Manage as a chronic illness Palliation – reduce symptoms Maximize quality of life Cancer Treatments o Most common treatment methods for Cancer: Surgery
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Pharmacotherapy – including Chemotherapy Radiation Hormonal Therapy Biotherapy 1. Surgical Treatment o Goals of CA Surgery: Prophylaxis Diagnosis – biopsy & stage tumors Cure – remove cancer Control - decrease tumor size Palliation - relieve discomfort & symptoms Reconstruction o Collaborative Management: Surgical Treatment Nursing Management during Surgical Treatment of the Cancer Patient Pre operative Post operative Complications 2. Radiation Therapy o Radiation therapy is the use of high energy rays to damage or kill cancer cells by preventing growth and division. Principles of Treatment External Radiation: Delivers high energy ray directly to tumor site from outside the body Internal Radiation – Brachytherapy: Delivers high dose radiation to localized area internally o Side Effects: Neuro : neuropathy, fatigue CV: pericarditis, myocarditis GI: Raditition enteritis- N/V, diarrhea, anorexia, dry mouth, stomatitis, esophagitis, hepatotoxicity, dysphagia GU:
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  • Spring '14
  • Brinkley
  • Oncology, Chemotherapy,  Principles,  Needle biopsy

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