Head InjuryStu_2015.pdf - Head Injuries HEAD INJURY Open...

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1 HEAD INJURY Open Head Injury Closed Head Injury Head Injuries Definition Brain injury is produced by a mechanical force applied either directly or indirectly to the brain. Direct injury: force produced by a blow to the head Indirect injury: force applied to another part of the body with a rebound effect to the brain. Brain Injury Brain responds to these forces by forward movement within the cranium causing shifts, injury or shearing. Injury most often to the frontal and temporal lobes may be permanent or temporary. Types of Force Acceleration injury is caused by the head in motion. Coup (same pole) Contrecoup (opposite pole) Deceleration injury occurs when the head is suddenly stopped or hits a stationary object. Example: Motor vehicle accidents
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2 Mechanism of Injury Acceleration injury occurs when the stationary head is impacted by a moving object. Deceleration injury occurs when a moving head meets a stationary object. Compound Head Injuries Traumatic blow to the head jars the brain within the cranial cavity Brain bounces off the skull opposite the site of injury. The direct injury is called a "coup" injury; the indirect injury is called a "contre- coup" injury. The injury is more severe because there are two sites of brain injury Brain Injury Closed (blunt) Brain Injury Open Brain Injury Concussion Contusion Diffuse Axonal Injury Intracranial Hemorrhage Epidural Hematoma Subdural Hematoma Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Hematoma Primary Brain Injury Primary brain injury results from the physical force within the brain tissue caused by open or closed trauma. Brain Injury Open head injury: occurs when the skull is fractured or penetrated by an object, violating the integrity of brain and dura and exposing them to environmental contaminants. Closed head injury: caused by blunt trauma and lead to concussions contusions lacerations of the brain Head Injuries Scalp Injury Skull Fractures Medical Management- Non-depressed skull fractures require close observation Depressed skull fractures are treated surgically
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3 Open Head Injuries Linear: a simple, clean break Depressed: in which bone is pressed inward into the brain tissue to at least the thickness of the skull. Open: in which the scalp is lacerated, creating a direct opening to brain tissue Basilar: occurs at the base of skull,tend to involve paranasal sinus or middle ear located near the temporal lobe, results in a CSF leak from the nose9rhinorrhea) or ear(otorrhea). Linear Skull Fracture Depressed Skull Fracture Depressed Skull Fracture Basilar skull fracture Basilar Skull Fractures There are very specific signs associated with a basilar skull fracture.
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  • Spring '14
  • Brinkley
  • Traumatic brain injury, closed head injury

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