StrokeASTUFall 2015.pdf - What IS a STROKE Signs and...

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11/6/2015 1 What IS a STROKE? A stroke is a sudden onset of focal neurologic deficit of cerebrovascular etiology lasting >24 hours. Signs and Symptoms Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg, especially on one side of the body Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes Sudden dizziness, loss of balance or coordination or trouble walking Sudden severe headache with no known cause Stroke: Brain Attack Fourth leading cause of death in the US Estimated 795,000 Americans suffer strokes each year Strokes cause of 133,000 deaths each year. 55,000 more women than men. Every 40 seconds, someone suffers a stroke. African Americans have almost twice the risk of a first stroke than people of other races. Strokes are a leading cause of adult disability. There are over 7,000,000 stroke survivors in the United States . Two Major Types of Strokes Ischemic strokes 83% of all strokes caused by thrombosis or emboli. Hemorrhagic strokes 17% of all strokes caused by subarachnoid or intra-cerebral bleeds. Risk Factors for Stroke Modifiable Factors Hypertension Cardiovascular disease Atrial Fibrillation Diabetes Mellitus Cigarette Smoking Hyperlipidemia Obesity Cocaine use Prior stroke or TIA Risk Factors for Stroke Non- Modifiable Factors Age Race Family History
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11/6/2015 2 ISCHEMIC STROKES Due to thrombosis, atherosclerosis, or embolism. Blood supply to an area of the brain is interrupted causing brain tissue in the area to become ischemic. Atherosclerosis causes arterial stenosis leading to a decreased blood supply. Embolic strokes are common in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation and patients with prosthetic heart valves. TIA - Transient Ischemic Attacks Ischemic strokes are sometimes preceded by episodes of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). TIA - Transient Ischemic Attacks Sudden onset of extremity numbness or weakness Receptive or expressive aphasia Diplopia or visual field blindness. TIA - Transient Ischemic Attacks Difference between TIA and stroke is the duration of the symptoms. Symptoms of a TIA last less than 24 hours and there are no residual effects. Most TIAs last about 10 to 20 minutes. TIA - Transient Ischemic Attacks It is critical that the client seek medical attention even though the symptoms resolve spontaneously. TIAs are warning signs of impending ischemic stroke and require prompt medical intervention TIA - Transient Ischemic Attacks TIAs are often due to stenosis in one or both of the carotid arteries. Medical treatment includes antihypertensive medications, antiplatelet medications (such as Aspirin or Plavix), an anti- coagulant (Coumadin).
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11/6/2015 3 Carotid Endarterectomy If carotid stenosis is established through diagnostic testing, a surgical procedure called a carotid endarterectomy can help restore adequate blood flow to the brain Early recognition is important!
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  • Spring '14
  • Brinkley
  •  Sudden trouble,  Every,  African Americans

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