Biology 112 Lecture.docx - Biology 112 Lecture Animal...

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Biology 112 Lecture 3/24/15 - Animal Digestive Systems Read chapter 40 Animal Structure: tissue organ organ system There are 11 different organ systems, know how each system functions 4 Tissue Types: 1. Epithelial – surface of a structure/ apical and basal ends 2. Connective – holds together/ volume of tissue cells is less than that of the cells of the structure 3. Muscle – skeletal (voluntary/ striations), smooth (involuntary/ no striations), and cardiac (involuntary/ some striations) 4. Nervous Tissue – regulates contraction and relaxation of muscles, various glands/ coordination/ regulation of other layers/ axon, dendrite, cell body Use these 4 different tissue types to put the animal body together Integumentary (Skin) Epidermis: epithelial layer Dermis: loose connective tissue Hypodermis: adipose tissue An organ is multiple tissues working together Think of an animal as a series of organ systems working together that specialize in different areas Digestive System 4 major functions: 1. Processing food 2. Absorption of nutrients from food 3. Absorption of electrolytes (Ca++, Na+, K+, Cl-, etc._ 4. Absorption of water *very important for land animals Know all the organs important for digestion food is specifically processed in each organ Total length of digestive tube is about five times your height Processing Digestion: breaking of each of the macromolecules types into monomers Hydrolysis (catabolic reaction): of the 4 macromolecules In primitive animals digestion is mostly intracellular (within the cell) Paramecium- all digestion occurs by food being drawn into the cell Hydra – do some digestion in gastrovascular cavity but some occurs within the cells Advanced animals have extracellular digestion hydrolytic reactions must occur in lumens of digestive organs, then cells lining the lumen absorb resulting monomers Human Digestion Starts at mouth and ends at anus Starts with Food (humans are abnormal because we cook food/ breaking down protein – denature/ kill bacteria/ breaks down or hydrolyses many macromolecules) Mouth o Chewing reflex (nervous system) o Teeth
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o Saliva (pH= 7.4) Mixture of food with ptyalin (enzyme) – salivary amylase (only works on starches) Mucus addition/ mixture: binds food, lubricates o Formation of bolus of food easier to digest because more surface area o Can study animal teeth to understand what sorts of food they ate (carnivore- meat/ herbivore- plants/ omnivore- both) Pharynx o The “throat”/ combined organ for digestion and respiration o Swallow reflex- take bolus of food and push it out of the pharynx and down into the esophagus o Epiglottis: “hatch” over opening of glottis, prevents food from being swallowed into the lungs (up= breathing air/ down= swallowing food) Esophagus o Tube leading to the stomach (10-15 inches) o
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