Foundation Design and Construction(Hong Kong).pdf

Foundation Design and Construction(Hong Kong).pdf - GEO...

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Unformatted text preview: GEO PUBLICATION No. 1/2006 FOUNDATION DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING OFFICE Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 2 © The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region First published, 2006 Prepared by : Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering and Development Department, Civil Engineering and Development Building, 101 Princess Margaret Road, Homantin, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Captions of Figures on the Front Cover Top Left : Construction of Large-diameter Bored Piles Top Right : Pile Loading Test Using Osterberg Load Cell Bottom Left : Foundations in Marble Bottom Right : Construction of Large-diameter Bored Piles on Slope 3 FOREWORD This publication is a reference document that presents a review of the principles and practice related to design and construction of foundation, with specific reference to ground conditions in Hong Kong. The information given in the publication should facilitate the use of modern methods and knowledge in foundation engineering. The Geotechnical Engineering Office published in 1996 a reference document (GEO Publication No. 1/96) on pile design and construction with a Hong Kong perspective. In recent years, there has been a growing emphasis on the use of rational design methods in foundation engineering. Many high-quality instrumented pile loading tests were conducted, which had resulted in better understanding of pile behaviour and more economic foundation solutions. The Geotechnical Engineering Office sees the need to revise the publication to consolidate the experience gained and improvement made in the practice of foundation design and construction. The scope of the publication is also expanded to cover the key design aspects for shallow foundations, in response to the request of the practitioners. Hence, a new publication title is used. The preparation of this publication is under the overall direction of a Working Group. The membership of the Working Group, given on the next page, includes representatives from relevant government departments, the Hong Kong Institution of Engineers and the Hong Kong Construction Association. Copies of a draft version of this document were circulated to local professional bodies, consulting engineers, contractors, academics, government departments and renowned overseas experts in the field of foundation engineering. Many individuals and organisations made very useful comments, many of which have been adopted in finalising this document. Their contributions are gratefully acknowledged. The data available to us from instrumented pile loading tests in Hong Kong are collated in this publication. Practitioners are encouraged to help expand this pile database by continuing to provide us with raw data from local instrumented pile loading tests. The data can be sent to Chief Geotechnical Engineer/Standards and Testing. Practitioners are encouraged to provide comments to the Geotechnical Engineering Office at any time on the contents of the publication, so that improvements can be made in future editions. Raymond K S Chan Head, Geotechnical Engineering Office January 2006 4 WORKING GROUP : Architectural Services Department Mr. Li W.W. Buildings Department Mr. Cheng M.L. Civil Engineering and Development Department Mr. Pun W.K. (Chairman) Mr. Ken Ho K.S. Dr. Richard Pang P.L. Mr. Vincent Tse S.H. Dr. Dominic Lo O.K. Mr. Sammy Cheung P.Y. (Secretary) Highways Department Mr. Li W. (before 1 December 2004) Mr. Yeung S.K. (between 1 December 2004 and 3 May 2005) Mr. Anthony Yuen W.K. (after 3 May 2005) Hong Kong Construction Association (Piling Contractor Subcommittee) Mr. David Chiu C.H. Hong Kong Institution of Engineers (Civil Division) Mr. Timothy Suen Hong Kong Institution of Engineers (Geotechnical Division) Dr. Daman Lee D.M. Hong Kong Institution of Engineers (Structural Division) Mr. Kwan K.K. Housing Department Dr. John Lai Y.K. Mr. Pang C.F. 5 CONTENTS Page No. TITLE PAGE 1 FOREWORD 3 WORKING GROUP 4 CONTENTS 5 LIST OF TABLES 15 LIST OF FIGURES 17 LIST OF PLATES 21 1. INTRODUCTION 23 1.1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE 23 1.2 GENERAL GUIDANCE 24 2. SITE INVESTIGATION, GEOLOGICAL MODELS AND SELECTION OF DESIGN PARAMETERS 25 2.1 GENERAL 25 2.2 DESK STUDIES 2.2.1 Site History 2.2.2 Details of Adjacent Structures and Existing Foundations 2.2.3 Geological Studies 2.2.4 Groundwater 25 25 26 26 33 2.3 EXECUTION OF GROUND INVESTIGATION 33 2.4 EXTENT OF GROUND INVESTIGATION 2.4.1 General Sites 33 33 6 Page No. 2.4.2 3. 4. Sites Underlain by Marble 34 2.5 SOIL AND ROCK SAMPLING 36 2.6 DETECTION OF AGGRESSIVE GROUND 36 2.7 INSITU AND LABORATORY TESTING 37 2.8 ESTABLISHING A GEOLOGICAL MODEL 38 2.9 SELECTION OF DESIGN PARAMETERS 39 SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS 41 3.1 GENERAL 41 3.2 DESIGN OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS ON SOILS 3.2.1 Determination of Bearing Capacity of Soils 3.2.1.1 General 3.2.1.2 Empirical methods 3.2.1.3 Bearing capacity theory 3.2.2 Foundations On or Near the Crest of a Slope 3.2.3 Factors of Safety 3.2.4 Settlement Estimation 3.2.4.1 General 3.2.4.2 Foundations on granular soils 3.2.4.3 Foundations on fine-grained soils 3.2.5 Lateral Resistance of Shallow Foundations 42 42 42 42 42 46 46 48 48 49 50 51 3.3 DESIGN OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS ON ROCK 51 3.4 PLATE LOADING TEST 52 3.5 RAFT FOUNDATIONS 53 TYPES OF PILE 55 4.1 CLASSIFICATION OF PILES 55 4.2 LARGE-DISPLACEMENT PILES 4.2.1 General 4.2.2 Precast Reinforced Concrete Piles 4.2.3 Precast Prestressed Spun Concrete Piles 4.2.4 Closed-ended Steel Tubular Piles 56 56 56 57 57 7 Page No. 4.2.5 5. Driven Cast-in-place Concrete Piles 58 4.3 SMALL-DISPLACEMENT PILES 4.3.1 General 4.3.2 Steel H-piles 4.3.3 Open-ended Steel Tubular Piles 58 58 58 59 4.4 REPLACEMENT PILES 4.4.1 General 4.4.2 Machine-dug Piles 4.4.2.1 Mini-piles 4.4.2.2 Socketed H-piles 4.4.2.3 Continuous flight auger piles 4.4.2.4 Large-diameter bored piles 4.4.2.5 Barrettes 4.4.3 Hand-dug Caissons 59 59 59 60 60 60 61 61 62 4.5 SPECIAL PILE TYPES 4.5.1 General 4.5.2 Shaft- and Base-grouted Piles 4.5.3 Jacked Piles 4.5.4 Composite Piles 65 65 65 66 67 CHOICE OF PILE TYPE AND DESIGN RESPONSIBILITY 69 5.1 GENERAL 69 5.2 FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN CHOICE OF PILE TYPE 5.2.1 Ground Conditions 5.2.2 Complex Ground Conditions 5.2.3 Nature of Loading 5.2.4 Effects of Construction on Surrounding Structures and Environment 5.2.5 Site and Plant Constraints 5.2.6 Safety 5.2.7 Programme and Cost 69 69 71 73 73 5.3 REUSE OF EXISTING PILES 5.3.1 General 5.3.2 Verifications of Conditions 5.3.3 Durability Assessment 5.3.4 Load-carrying Capacity 5.3.5 Other Design Aspects 75 75 76 76 77 77 5.4 DESIGN RESPONSIBILITY 78 74 74 75 8 Page No. 5.4.1 Contractor's Design 5.4.2 Engineer's Design 5.4.3 Discussions 6. 78 78 79 DESIGN OF SINGLE PILES AND DEFORMATION OF PILES 81 6.1 GENERAL 81 6.2 PILE DESIGN IN RELATION TO GEOLOGY 81 6.3 DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES 6.3.1 General 6.3.2 Global Factor of Safety Approach 6.3.3 Limit State Design Approach 6.3.4 Discussions on Design Approaches 6.3.5 Recommended Factors of Safety 6.3.6 Planning for Future Redevelopments 82 82 82 82 84 85 87 6.4 AXIALLY LOADED PILES IN SOIL 6.4.1 General 6.4.2 Pile Driving Formulae 6.4.3 Wave Equation Analysis 6.4.4 Use of Soil Mechanics Principles 6.4.4.1 General 6.4.4.2 Critical depth concept 6.4.4.3 Bored piles in granular soils 6.4.4.4 Driven piles in granular soils 6.4.4.5 Bored piles in clays 6.4.4.6 Driven piles in clays 6.4.4.7 Other factors affecting shaft resistance 6.4.4.8 Effect of soil plug on open-ended pipe piles 6.4.5 Correlation with Standard Penetration Tests 6.4.5.1 General 6.4.5.2 End-bearing resistance 6.4.5.3 Shaft resistance 6.4.6 Correlation with Other Insitu Tests 87 87 88 91 91 91 91 93 97 98 99 100 100 101 101 101 101 103 6.5 AXIALLY LOADED PILES IN ROCK 6.5.1 General 6.5.2 Driven Piles in Rock 6.5.3 Bored Piles in Rock 6.5.3.1 General 6.5.3.2 Semi-empirical methods 6.5.3.3 Bearing capacity theories 6.5.3.4 Insitu tests 103 103 104 104 104 105 111 111 9 Page No. 6.5.3.5 Presumptive bearing values 6.5.4 Rock Sockets 111 114 6.6 UPLIFT CAPACITY OF PILES 6.6.1 Piles in Soil 6.6.2 Rock Sockets 6.6.3 Cyclic Loading 117 117 119 120 6.7 LATERAL LOAD CAPACITY OF PILES 6.7.1 Vertical Piles in Soil 6.7.2 Inclined Loads 6.7.3 Raking Piles in Soil 6.7.4 Rock Sockets 6.7.5 Cyclic Loading 121 121 129 129 129 131 6.8 NEGATIVE SKIN FRICTION 6.8.1 General 6.8.2 Calculation of Negative Skin Friction 6.8.3 Field Observations in Hong Kong 6.8.4 Means of Reducing Negative Skin Friction 131 131 132 134 135 6.9 TORSION 135 6.10 PRELIMINARY PILES FOR DESIGN EVALUATION 135 6.11 PILE DESIGN IN KARST MARBLE 137 6.12 STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF PILES 6.12.1 General 6.12.2 Lifting Stresses 6.12.3 Driving and Working Stresses 6.12.4 Bending and Buckling of Piles 6.12.5 Mini-piles 141 141 141 141 142 143 6.13 DEFORMATION OF SINGLE PILES 6.13.1 General 6.13.2 Axial Loading 6.13.2.1 General 6.13.2.2 Load transfer method 6.13.2.3 Elastic continuum methods 6.13.2.4 Numerical methods 6.13.2.5 Determination of deformation parameters 6.13.3 Lateral Loading 6.13.3.1 General 6.13.3.2 Equivalent cantilever method 6.13.3.3 Subgrade reaction method 143 143 146 146 146 146 150 152 155 155 156 156 10 Page No. 6.13.3.4 Elastic continuum methods 6.14 7. CORROSION OF PILES 159 160 GROUP EFFECTS 165 7.1 GENERAL 165 7.2 MINIMUM SPACING OF PILES 165 7.3 ULTIMATE CAPACITY OF PILE GROUPS 7.3.1 General 7.3.2 Vertical Pile Groups in Granular Soils under Compression 7.3.2.1 Free-standing driven piles 7.3.2.2 Free-standing bored piles 7.3.2.3 Pile groups with ground bearing cap 7.3.3 Vertical Pile Groups in Clays under Compression 7.3.4 Vertical Pile Groups in Rock under Compression 7.3.5 Vertical Pile Groups under Lateral Loading 7.3.6 Vertical Pile Groups under Tension Loading 7.3.7 Pile Groups Subject to Eccentric Loading 166 166 167 167 168 169 169 171 171 173 173 7.4 NEGATIVE SKIN FRICTION ON PILE GROUPS 175 7.5 DEFORMATION OF PILE GROUPS 7.5.1 Axial Loading on Vertical Pile Groups 7.5.1.1 General 7.5.1.2 Semi-empirical methods 7.5.1.3 Equivalent raft method 7.5.1.4 Equivalent pier method 7.5.1.5 Interaction factor methods 7.5.1.6 Numerical methods 7.5.2 Lateral Loading on Vertical Pile Groups 7.5.2.1 General 7.5.2.2 Methodologies for analysis 7.5.2.3 Effect of pile cap 7.5.3 Combined Loading on General Pile Groups 7.5.3.1 General 7.5.3.2 Methodologies for analysis 7.5.3.3 Choice of parameters 179 179 179 179 180 180 182 185 187 187 187 188 190 190 191 192 7.6 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS IN SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEMS 7.6.1 General 7.6.2 Load Distribution between Piles 192 192 192 11 Page No. 7.6.2.1 General 7.6.2.2 Piles subject to vertical loading 7.6.2.3 Piles subject to lateral loading 7.6.3 Piled Raft Foundations 7.6.3.1 Design principles 7.6.3.2 Methodologies for analysis 7.6.3.3 Case histories 7.6.4 Use of Piles to Control Foundation Stiffness 7.6.5 Piles in Soils Undergoing Movement 7.6.5.1 General 7.6.5.2 Piles in soils undergoing lateral movement 7.6.5.3 Piles in heaving soils 8. 192 193 193 195 195 195 197 198 199 199 199 200 PILE INSTALLATION AND CONSTRUCTION CONTROL 201 8.1 GENERAL 201 8.2 INSTALLATION OF DISPLACEMENT PILES 8.2.1 Equipment 8.2.2 Characteristics of Hammers and Vibratory Drivers 8.2.2.1 General 8.2.2.2 Drop hammers 8.2.2.3 Steam or compressed air hammers 8.2.2.4 Diesel hammers 8.2.2.5 Hydraulic hammers 8.2.2.6 Vibratory drivers 8.2.3 Selection of Method of Pile Installation 8.2.4 Potential Problems Prior to Pile Installation 8.2.4.1 Pile manufacture 8.2.4.2 Pile handling 8.2.5 Potential Problems during Pile Installation 8.2.5.1 General 8.2.5.2 Structural damage 8.2.5.3 Pile head protection assembly 8.2.5.4 Obstructions 8.2.5.5 Pile whipping and verticality 8.2.5.6 Toeing into rock 8.2.5.7 Pile extension 8.2.5.8 Pre-ignition of diesel hammers 8.2.5.9 Difficulties in achieving set 8.2.5.10 Set-up phenomenon 8.2.5.11 False set phenomenon 8.2.5.12 Piling sequence 8.2.5.13 Raking piles 8.2.5.14 Piles with bituminous or epoxy coating 201 201 203 203 203 204 204 204 205 205 207 207 207 208 208 208 212 212 213 214 214 215 216 217 217 217 218 218 12 Page No. 8.2.5.15 Problems with marine piling 8.2.5.16 Driven cast-in-place piles 8.2.5.17 Cavernous marble 8.2.6 Potentially Damaging Effects of Construction and Mitigating Measures 8.2.6.1 Ground movement 8.2.6.2 Excess porewater pressure 8.2.6.3 Noise 8.2.6.4 Vibration 8.3 INSTALLATION OF MACHINE-DUG PILES 8.3.1 Equipment 8.3.1.1 Large-diameter bored piles 8.3.1.2 Mini-piles and socketed H-piles 8.3.1.3 Continuous flight auger (cfa) piles 8.3.1.4 Shaft- and base-grouted piles 8.3.2 Use of Drilling Fluid for Support of Excavation 8.3.2.1 General 8.3.2.2 Stabilising action of bentonite slurry 8.3.2.3 Testing of bentonite slurry 8.3.2.4 Polymer fluid 8.3.3 Assessment of Founding Level and Condition of Pile Base 8.3.4 Potential Problems during Pile Excavation 8.3.4.1 General 8.3.4.2 Bore instability and overbreak 8.3.4.3 Stress relief and disturbance 8.3.4.4 Obstructions 8.3.4.5 Control of bentonite slurry 8.3.4.6 Base cleanliness and disturbance of founding materials 8.3.4.7 Position and verticality of pile bores 8.3.4.8 Vibration 8.3.4.9 Sloping rock surface 8.3.4.10 Inspection of piles 8.3.4.11 Recently reclaimed land 8.3.4.12 Bell-outs 8.3.4.13 Soft sediments 8.3.4.14 Piles in landfill and chemically contaminated ground 8.3.4.15 Cavernous marble 8.3.5 Potential Problems during Concreting 8.3.5.1 General 8.3.5.2 Quality of concrete 8.3.5.3 Quality of grout 8.3.5.4 Steel reinforcement 8.3.5.5 Placement of concrete in dry condition 8.3.5.6 Placement of concrete in piles constructed under water or bentonite 219 219 220 220 220 222 222 223 226 226 226 227 228 228 228 228 229 229 230 230 231 231 235 235 236 236 237 238 239 239 239 239 240 240 241 241 241 241 241 242 242 243 244 13 Page No. 8.4 8.5 9. 8.3.5.7 Concrete placement in continuous flight auger piles 8.3.5.8 Extraction of temporary casing 8.3.5.9 Effect of groundwater 8.3.5.10 Problems in soft ground 8.3.5.11 Cut-off levels 8.3.6 Potential Problems after Concreting 8.3.6.1 Construction of adjacent piles 8.3.6.2 Impact by construction plant 8.3.6.3 Damage during trimming 8.3.6.4 Cracking of piles due to thermal effects and ground movement 244 245 246 246 247 247 247 247 247 248 INSTALLATION OF HAND-DUG CAISSONS 8.4.1 General 8.4.2 Assessment of Condition of Pile Base 8.4.2.1 Hand-dug caissons in saprolites 8.4.2.2 Hand-dug caissons in rock 8.4.3 Potential Installation Problems and Construction Control Measures 8.4.3.1 General 8.4.3.2 Problems with groundwater 8.4.3.3 Base heave and shaft stability 8.4.3.4 Base softening 8.4.3.5 Effects on shaft resistance 8.4.3.6 Effects on blasting 8.4.3.7 Cavernous marble 8.4.3.8 Safety and health hazard 8.4.3.9 Construction control 248 248 248 248 249 249 INTEGRITY TESTS OF PILES 8.5.1 Role of Integrity Tests 8.5.2 Types of Non-destructive Integrity Tests 8.5.2.1 General 8.5.2.2 Sonic logging 8.5.2.3 Vibration (impedance) test 8.5.2.4 Echo (seismic or sonic integrity) test 8.5.2.5 Dynamic loading tests 8.5.3 Practical Considerations in the Use of Integrity Tests 253 253 254 254 254 255 260 263 264 249 249 250 250 251 251 252 252 252 PILE LOADING TESTS 267 9.1 GENERAL 267 9.2 TIMING OF PILE TESTS 267 14 Page No. 9.3 STATIC PILE LOADING TESTS 9.3.1 Reaction Arrangement 9.3.1.1 Compression tests 9.3.1.2 Uplift loading tests 9.3.1.3 Lateral loading tests 9.3.2 Equipment 9.3.2.1 Measurement of load 9.3.2.2 Measurement of pile head movement 9.3.3 Test Procedures 9.3.3.1 General 9.3.3.2 Maintained-load tests 9.3.3.3 Constant rate of penetration tests 9.3.4 Instrumentation 9.3.4.1 General 9.3.4.2 Axial loading tests 9.3.4.3 Lateral loading tests 9.3.5 Interpretation of Test Results 9.3.5.1 General 9.3.5.2 Evaluation of failure load 9.3.5.3 Acceptance criteria 9.3.5.4 Axial loading tests on instrumented piles 9.3.5.5 Lateral loading tests 9.3.5.6 Other aspects of loading test interpretation 268 268 268 270 271 271 271 273 274 274 274 275 275 275 277 279 280 280 280 282 286 286 287 9.4 DYNAMIC LOADING TESTS 9.4.1 General 9.4.2 Test Methods 9.4.3 Methods of Interpretation 9.4.3.1 General 9.4.3.2 CASE method 9.4.3.3 CAPWAP method 9.4.3.4 SIMBAT method 9.4.3.5 Other methods of analysis 9.4.4 Recommendations on the Use of Dynamic Loading Tests 289 289 289 290 290 290 291 291 292 292 REFERENCES APPENDIX A 295 SUMMARY OF RESULTS OF INSTRUMENTED PILE LOADING TESTS IN HONG KONG 337 GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS 363 GLOSSARY OF TERMS 373 15 LIST OF TABLES Table No. Page No. 3.1 Bearing Capacity Factors for Computing Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations 45 3.2 Values of Cα/Cc for Geotechnical Materials 51 4.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Displacement Piles 56 4.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Machine-dug Piles 59 4.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Hand-dug Caissons 62 6.1 Minimum Global Factors of Safety for Piles in Soil and Rock 86 6.2 Minimum Mobilisation Factors for Shaft Resistance and End-bearing Resistance 86 6.3 Typical Values of Shaft Resistance Coefficient, β, in Saprolites and Sand 96 6.4 Rating Assigned to Individual Parameters using RMR Classification System 109 6.5 Allowable Bearing Pressure Based on Computed RMR Value 110 6.6 Presumed Allowable Vertical Bearing Pressure for Foundations on Horizontal Ground 113 6.7 Classification of Marble 139 6.8 Limits on Increase of Vertical Effective Stress on Marble Surface 141 6.9 Shape and Rigidity Factors for Calculating Settlements of Points on Loaded Areas at the Surface of an Elastic Half-space 152 6.10 Correlations between Drained Young's Modulus and SPT N Value for Weathered Granites in Hong Kong 154 6.11 Typical Values of Coefficient of Horizontal Subgrade Reaction 158 7.1 Tolerance of Installed Piles 166 7.2 Reduction Factor for Coefficient of Subgrade Reaction for a Laterally Loaded Pile Group 188 8.1 Typical Energy Transfer Ratio of Pile Hammers 203 8.2 Possible Defects in Displacement Piles Caused by Driving 209 16 Table No. Page No. 8.3 Defects in Displacement Piles Caused by Ground Heave and Possible Mitigation Measures 210 8.4 Problems with Displacement Piles Caused by Lateral Ground Movement and Possible Mitigation Measures 210 8.5 Problems with Driven Cast-in-place Piles Caused by Groundwater and Possible Mitigation Measures 211 8.6 Limits on Driving Stress 211 8.7 Limits on Properties of Bentonite Slurry 230 8.8 Causes and Mitigation of Possible Defects in Replacement Piles 232 8.9 Interpretation of Vibration Tests on Piles 259 8.10 Classification of Pile Damage by Dynamic Loading Test 264 9.1 Loading Procedures and Acceptance Criteria for Pile Loading Tests in Hong Kong 276 9.2 Range of CASE Damping Values for Different Types of Soil 291 A1 Interpreted Shaft Resistance in Loading Tests on Instrumented Replacement Piles in Hong Kong 343 A2 Interpreted Shaft Resistance in Loading Tests on Instrumented Displacement Piles in Hong Kong 347 A3 Interpreted Shaft Resistance in Loading Tests on Instrumented Replacement Piles with Shaft-grouting in Hong Kong 350 A4 Interpreted Shaft Resistance and End-bearing Resistance in Loading Tests on Instrumented Replacement Piles Embedded in Rock in Hong Kong 351 17 LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Page No. 2.1 Principal Rock and Soil Types in Hong Kong 28 2.2 Geological Map of Hong Kong 31 2.3 Representation of a Corestone-bearing Rock Mass 32 3.1 Generalised Loading and Geometric Parameters for a Spread Shallow Foundation 44 3.2 Linear Interpolation Procedures for Determining Ultimate Bearing Capacity of a Spread Shallow Foundation near the Crest of a Slope 47 5.1 Suggested Procedures for the Choice of Foundation Type for a Site 70 6.1 Wave Equation Analysis 92 6.2 Relationship between Nq and φ' 94 6.3 Relationship between β and φ' for Bored Piles in Granular Soils 96 6.4 Design Line for α Values for Piles Driven into Clays 99 6.5 Correlation between Allowable Bearing Pressure and RQD for a Jointed Rock Mass ...
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