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Lab #9 : The Systemic Identification of an Organic Compound Yook Teng (Tiffany) Lam February 13, 2015 TA: Lukas Klees CHEM 335, Section B74 Department of Chemistry, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY 11362
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Introduction Organic compounds can be systematically identified by utilizing various techniques and spectroscopic methods. Sample may not be pure so it is advised to purify it; either by recrystallization or distillation. Other physical properties that may be helpful in identification is noting the color, odor, and determining refractive index of sample. Some classification tests include testing for alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and amines. They include the 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine, chromic acid test, sodium bicarbonate test, and acetyle chloride test. Other optional tests include bromine test, Baeyer test, Beilstein test, and silver nitrate test if the main tests don’t help. The objective of this lab is to determine the unknown organic compounds. If samples are contaminated, they should be purified by distillation or crystallization before doing identification. Four classification tests are used to determine the identity of the samples. Experimental Procedure Solid #17 was obtained from instructor was a solid sample; melting point was determined using the Digimelt machine. Four main tests were performed to test for the functional groups present in the sample. 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine was the first test; tested for presence of carbonyl group. About 20mg of the sample was placed into a test tube with 1mL of 95% ethanol and 1mL of the hydrazine reagent. The solution was mixed vigorously. A yellow precipitate formed indicating there is a carbonyl group in sample. The positive and negative control was tested prior to testing sample. Chromic acid test was the second test; tested for presence of primary alcohol, secondary alcohol, and aldehydes. Negative for tertiary alcohols. About 20mg of sample was placed into test tube with 1mL of pure acetone. Green precipitate formed indicating the presence of one of the functional groups. Sodium bicarbonate test was the third test; tested for carboxylic acid. About 20mg of sample was placed into test tube with 5% NaHCO 3 . Bubbling of carbon dioxide means positive results, but sample #17 did not produce gas.
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  • Spring '12
  • Dr.Kematick
  • Amine, Functional group, Amide, Classification Tests

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