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Lab #1: Basic Microelectronics in Instrumentation: Construction of Circuits with Operational Amplifiers Yook Teng (Tiffany) Lam Lab Partner: Sam Kim September 10, 2015 TA: Zakiya Skeete CHEM 422, A52 Department of Chemistry, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY 11362
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Abstract The purpose of the experiment was to understand the principle operations of an operational amplifier. Several sample circuits were produced using a computer program known as Electronic Workbench (EWB). These simulated circuits were then built using the proto-board and tested for their output values. The measured output values were compared to the theoretically calculated values. The lab indicated that a disparity existed between the measured outputs and calculated outputs. In part B, circuit 2 produced measured values of -14.88V and -11.25V as opposed to the calculated values of -13.50V and -10.68V respectively. Circuit 4 produced measured values of 5.150V and 5.200V which did not agree with theoretical value of 5V. Introduction An operational amplifier (Op Amp) is an electronic voltage amplifying device that is used with external feedback pieces like resistors and capacitors between its output and input terminals. More than one input signal can result in a single output. It is able to produce an output potential that is usually hundreds of times larger than the voltage between the input terminals. An Op Amp is an analog instrument made of 20 transistors and resistors on a single chip. They are utilized for many reasons such as performing mathematical operations: summing, multiplying, differentiating and integrating. They are also used for measuring voltage, current, and resistance. Other times they are used as constant current and constant voltage sources. There are several parts that make up an Op Amp. The V + and V - terminals are the input signals and they are usually equivalent in values. The V + is also called the non-inverting input therefore if a positive potential is connected to it, results in a positive output. The V - is the inverting input therefore if a positive potential is connected to it, results in a negative output. Similarly, a negative potential input results in a positive output. The +PS and –PS terminals are the power sources and they set the boundaries for the output values (V O ). For example, if +PS is +6V and the –PS is -4V, the V O values can only be between -4V and +6V.
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An Op Amp functions in three stages; high input impedance difference amplifier, high gain voltage amplifier and a low impedance output amplifier. The objective of the experiment is to understand the principles of operations for Op Amps in modern instrumentation. In part A, a computer simulation program is utilized to create and test four sample circuits. Circuits 2 and 4 of the samples circuits are then built using actual electronic parts in part B. Lastly in part C, the usage of an analog-digital converter (ADC) circuit is demonstrated.
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