philosophy study guide (AutoRecovered).docx

philosophy study guide (AutoRecovered).docx - Exam 1 Study...

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Exam 1: Study Guide Unit 1: Logic Nature of Philosophy: - Conceptions of philosophy : o Wisdom-seeking (philosophia: love of wisdom) o Systematic investigation of problems of reality, knowledge, values, and logic - Branches of philosophy: o Metaphysics : theory of reality o Epistemology : theory of knowledge o Value Theory : ethics, aesthetics, politics o Logic : theory of reasoning and arguments - Difference between philosophy, science, and religion: o “…between theology and science, there is a No Man’s Land, exposed to attack from both sides; this No Man’s Land is philosophy” – Bertrand Russell ( History of Western Philosophy ) Nature of Logic: - What is logic and why is it important: o Theory and study of good reasoning - Wittgenstein on language games (School of Life video) Argument Analysis: - Arguments: identifying premises and conclusions: o Premises : common premise indicators: Since, because, for, given that, the reason is that, as indicated by, on the supposition that, assuming that, inasmuch as, as shown by o Conclusions : common conclusion indicators: Thus, so, therefore, hence, implies that, consequently, as a result, entails that, accordingly, shows that, suggests that, proves that - Argument diagramming (numerals and arrows) o Assign numerals to the statements and diagram the argument using numerals and arrows o Arrows represent the logical flow of ideas o Conjoint premises are joined using a + sign and exist when two or more premises are working together to support the conclusion o Two or more independent premises are their own arguments that support the same conclusion - Conjointly supporting versus independently supporting premises: o Conjoint – work together mutually o Independent – work separately to support the same conclusion or idea Inductive and Deductive Arguments:
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- Deductive vs. Inductive arguments: o Deductive Arguments: aim to guarantee or prove their conclusions Two important properties: validity and soundness o Inductive arguments: aim to make their conclusions more probable, but they cannot guarantee them Two important properties: strength and cogency - Good deductive arguments are sound (valid + true premises) o Validity and soundness: Validity occurs when the premises, if true, guarantee the truth of the conclusion A deductive argument is sound if it is both valid and the premises are true - Good inductive arguments are cogent (strong + true premises) o Strength and cogency: An inductive argument is strong if the premises increase the probability that the conclusion is true, otherwise the argument is weak. An inductive argument is cogent if the argument is strong and the premises are actually true - How to tell the difference: o Do(es) the premise(s) guarantee the conclusion? If not, it is an inductive argument.
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