CHEM 183 Midterm #1 Notes (22 pages).docx

CHEM 183 Midterm #1 Notes (22 pages).docx - Hormones Bible...

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Hormones - Bible: one of the most famous stories = David killing Goliath - One explanation: multiple endocrine neoplasia (hormonal problem) - Excessive growth - Visual problems (signifies issue with pituitary gland) —> couldn’t get out of slingshot pathway - Low blood sugar (signifies issue with pancreas) - Soft skull (signifies issue with parathyroid) - Historically… - John Hunter (18th century physician) —> carried out a seminal experiment. Castrated roosters and discovered their combs collapsed - The roosters comb is a way to attract females - Arnold Berthold (1849) —> castrated roosters & took the testes & put it back into the body cavity of the rooster —> showed normal sexual behaviour & comb development - Concluded that “testes released something in the blood” - Thomas Addison (1855) —> noted on autopsy that ppl who had atrophied adrenal glands had shown poor appetite, low BP, weakness, anemia/bronzed skin (while alive) - Concluded that the adrenal gland must be releasing something that prevents these symptoms - By 1895 , an extract of the adrenal gland was made & injected to raise blood pressure —> it worked (hormones produced by the gland did this—> adrenaline) - Charles Brown-Sequard (1889) —> focused on dog genitals & injected himself with macerated dog testicles & claimed to feel young again - Word started to spread & Huxters started to sell these types of extracts - Serge Voronoff (19th century) —> wanted to do a human testical experiment so he asked the french gov if he could have the testicals of executed criminals - Took these glands and grafting them onto the existing testicals of men who claimed they were growing old - In many cases, men felt better (probably due to placebo effect) - Ran out, next best thing is primates —> started a farm & raised monkeys. Took their glands and carried out hundreds of surgical procedures
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- Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a medical doctor objected to all of these experiments —> let this be known with one of the Sherlock Holmes “The Adventure of the Creeping Man” (started to take monkey gland extracts & made a monkey of himself) - John Romulus Brinkley (19th century) —> wanted to be doctor but stopped after two years. Got himself a mail-ordered diploma & was granted a medical license - Had grown up on a farm and saw that goats were very horny —> thought these testicals would be a good match - He became the goat gland doctor —> took goat testes & implanted them into male scrotums (carried out over 1700 operations, multiple complications arised) - One famous case: farmer was a “flat tire” —> implanted testes in scrotum. A year later, farmer thanked him & told him he fathered a son - More legitimate research - Dolanski (1894) —> how is it that when you eat food, the liver/pancreas know to secrete juices - Thought that when you eat food, your stomach pumps out acid. Wondered if it was the increase in acidity that sent messages to pancreas - To confirm this: take a dog & instead of feeding food to it, insert stomach acid through the rear directly into the intestines (should leak into bloodstream and see if that would
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